Variability of behavior in journalistic observation - Sociology of Journalism

Varianism of behavior in journalistic observation

The appeal to the method of observation involves choosing a line of its role behavior. The variant of distinguishing between research roles in the included observation was proposed by RL Gold. Research roles can range from the participant to the role of "watcher". This distinction is based on the degree of involvement/detachment of the researcher in the situation of observation and, accordingly, on the degree of closure/openness of his journalistic research activities. In this case, the following roles are distinguished: a full observer, an observer as a participant, a participant as an observer, a full participant.

1. Full Observer .

The role of the "complete observer" implies the complete exclusion of the reactions of the studied people to the researcher. The latter, as happens in some psychological experiments, looks at the subjects through a one-way mirror, observes a hidden camera or uses other methods of operational intelligence, "writes the sociologist IF Devyatko. In journalism, the use of such a role is common, its classic example is the work of writer and publicist Vladimir Gilyarovsky (late XIX - early XX centuries.). There are also expressive examples in modern practice.

In the essay Non-United States people (Nezavisimaya Gazeta, 2009. March 3) author Rosa Tsvetkova describes the scene she witnessed in the Moscow route taxi: "At the last stop, by the metro, again for him, the driver, the test. Here women went into battle, more precisely two of them. Trying to get out as quickly as possible, the one so jerked the minibus door that it literally skewed and jammed halfway up the opening. What began ... As if the locks were opened - for several seconds, during which the unfortunate driver ran from his door to ours, he happened to hear so much abuse in his address and all Asian nationalities in addition, that it was right to start a fight. And I'm not sure that I would be on the side of the hostage passengers. And he, or the Uzbek, or the Tajik, nothing. Somehow quickly and dexterously put the door back in place and, standing in flimsy boots in a road mash on the ankle, gave everyone an outgoing hand so that it would be easier to step over the dirt. " This example shows that a complete exclusion of the reaction to others does not preclude the development of an author's assessment of what is happening and the expression of the author's attitude to the participants of the observed situation.

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2. Observer as participant .

In this case, role-based variation is manifested in relation to participants in events as informers and in how much they are aware that the investigative journalist is involved in the events. Such awareness can allow a journalist to play the role of a "beginner" - manifest ignorance, ask questions, discover incompetence in natural and everyday things for people around them.

Such a role underlies the idea of ​​television projects by Mikhail Kozhukhov In search of adventure and Far and further away & quot ;. In a newspaper interview, he talks about his feelings when performing unusual roles, for example, about the role of the Chinese juggler: "I could not overcome my shyness, my shame, well, which one of me is a juggler, I'll fall into the whole white world. & lt; ... & gt; As a result, I forced myself to go out into the arena, almost broke the vase, which was juggled, but everything turned out. Then I got used to it, and now almost in every country I go out either to the stage of the theater or to the circus arena. He played in drama and puppet shows, even appeared in the dance groups, which at my composition seems incredible. " And about the role of journalism: "You become a different person when the camera is turned on. & lt; ... & gt; The more natural you are in front of the camera, the more chances you will have to please the viewer. This is the trouble of most actors: they habitually come up with a role and start playing it, but you do not need to play, you have to remain yourself, this is the main difficulty. & lt; ... & gt; Risk is also included in the rules of the game. In Africa, on the Zambezi River, jumped from the tarp, 52 meters in free fall. In Thailand, according to the script, I was bitten by a snake, yes, the real one. Without a camera, I would never have decided on this (Rossiyskaya Gazeta - Week, 2004. Aug. 6).

3. Member as observer .

Representatives of the studied community in such situations can impose on the journalist the role of an expert, connoisseur, judge, etc.

Oleg Aliev, traveler and journalist, author of a number of documentaries of the television project "Unknown Planet" had to perform in this role. On New Guinea, he even managed to prevent military clashes between the tribes. About his impressions, he says: "I'm the only one of the United Statess who lived more than 10 years in New Guinea. And there are still groups of people who have never seen a white man. With magical rituals, when he lived among small nations, he not only came across, but even participated in them. & lt; ... & gt; Sometimes it was interesting, sometimes it was required to remove the plot, sometimes I just had to participate, because it was impossible to refuse. & lt; ... & gt; People in New Guinea are afraid of curses, for them witchcraft is a reality. I would never have believed it if I had not witnessed real witchcraft ... Perhaps what is happening today in my personal life is the result of communicating with that world. So, it's not necessary to believe that sorcerers have the power to feel on themselves how their magic works? Can you be skeptical and be damned? They claim that it is not necessary to believe. Therefore, without embarrassment, give talismans, over which spells are uttered, so that you take with them all the suffering from their village. Sometimes you do not know what they are whispering after you. We resist this as a stupid superstition, but there is a reason why people in New Guinea are very afraid of sorcerers ... & quot ;. Oleg Aliyev pays attention to the fact that one can understand another culture only in its own context, through its values ​​and meanings.

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4. Full Member .

In the role of complete member the goals and status of the investigative journalist remain a mystery to others, therefore such situations are often called covert surveillance. In such cases, the journalist most often assumes the role already existing in the observed group.

Using the full participation requires scrupulous preliminary training. The well-known German journalist-researcher Günther Valraf in the 70s. XX century. applied the included observation to study the life and working conditions of Turkish immigrants in West Germany - he himself became such a guest worker for a while. He had to learn the language, learn new specialties for him and even resort to make-up. In the book Reporter accuses Walraf wrote about his attitude towards him as a Turk of others: "I still do not understand how a foreigner swallows daily humiliations, displays of hostility and hatred. But now I know what he has to endure and how far contempt for a person in this country can go. "

Q. S. Romanovsky describes the circumstances of another investigation directly related to journalism: "Walraf, under the name of an advertising specialist, entered the Hannover branch of Bild. In his notes (later), Gunther will tell the truth about the newspaper concern ... "Bild" embodies an instance, for example, writes Walraf, "which tracks" that there should be no machinations in the society. " This is a quote from the leadership, which he recorded on one of the newspaper slats. And then Valraf cites murderous examples of the machinations of the "Bild" itself, speculating on personal tragedies of people in the name of cheap sensation. "Nothing social!" - this is one of the slogans of the concern "Bild". If possible, for example, the workers of the Federal Republic of Germany were portrayed as such monsters, criminals, who arouse fear and hatred of the layman. "Bild" in every way avoided those who criticize the capitalist system. If a dog bites a person - this is not news. News, they believed and believe in "Bild", if a person bites a dog. And so in everything & quot ;. The method that Walraf uses, along with obvious advantages, also has significant drawbacks: ethical problems, impossibility of guaranteed control over the use of acting abilities, the risk of loss of professional identity. However, the shortcomings in using the method of included observation can also be caused by the influence of attitudes and values ​​inherent in the culture to which the investigative journalist belongs.

Using the method of observation, despite all its merits, because of the influence of personal characteristics of the journalist, does not allow to fully evaluate objectively, describe and analyze the observed phenomena. Overcome the methodical one-sidedness helps to combine the benefits of working with various sources of information and, first of all, with people-participants and witnesses of events accompanying social interaction.

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