To describe and analyze the interaction of journalism with the social environment, there are two groups of methodological approaches. The first developed within the framework of theories of mass communication (G. Lasswell, P. Lazarsfeld, R. Merton, BA Grushin, BM Firsov, ) and is a description of information processes in the categories communicator (the source of the message), information (content of the message), mass media (QMS) (message channel), audience (Message Destination), Efficiency (result of the message). The tradition of research on mass communication as a socio-political phenomenon originates in social psychology and empirical sociology of electoral behavior, as well as in the sociology of public opinion.

The development of the research of the mass information system led to the formulation of the principle of the "two-stage flow of communication" - from the leaders of opinions interpreting media reports to the masses. We should also pay attention to the difference between the two vectors of the information flow: from the communicator to the QMS, from the QMS to the audience. This difference consists in the fact that the media (as part of the QMS system) selects information and translates it into a verbal or figurative-symbolic series, into a language adequate to the information channel and audience characteristics.

As you can see, the absence in the communicative model of the category "journalism" does not exclude the description and analysis of journalistic activity from the standpoint of mass communication theories, since the model allows us to consider various aspects of journalism as "floating" functions, for example, information retrieval as a structural relationship "Media-communicator" or feedback between the audience and the media.

The second approach, within which the analysis of journalistic social interaction is possible, is developed in theory of journalism

Supporters of this concept use a work analysis scheme using the categories "reality", "author", "text", "audience". The domestic tradition of journalism studies is based on the literary concepts of RO Jakobson, V. Ya. Propp, MM Bakhtin, K). M. Lotman, etc. With the use of such an analysis procedure, the work of political journalism is an integral phenomenon uniting the characteristics of socio-political reality, the author, the text and the audience.

This principle of presentation will be applied consistently in this chapter, since the teaching of the disciplines of the direction "Political journalism" based on the provisions of the theory of journalism, in which, to a greater extent, individual creative practice is studied, rather than the institutional and functional characteristics of the phenomenon.

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