China, Local government and public administration bodies, Local...

China

Local government and public authorities

There are 23 provinces in China, five autonomous regions, three cities of central subordination. In addition, the special administrative regions are Hong Kong, the former Hong Kong, which transferred to China from the British colonial administration, and Macau (formerly Macao from Portugal). So far, in Hong Kong, the former economic system remains. Provinces are divided into districts and autonomous okrugs, counties - to counties and autonomous counties, counties - to volosts and national parishes. The legal status of local public authorities and public administration is regulated by the law on the organization of local assemblies of people's representatives and local people's governments at various levels. The local government bodies in China are meetings of people's representatives of administrative-territorial units and standing committees of these meetings. These are not organs of self-government, but public authorities. It is believed that they fulfill not only local, but also national tasks. As noted, the lower level of the assembly of people's representatives is directly elected by citizens, the remaining links are lower-level assemblies of people's representatives. The term of office of people's representatives of settlements, volosts, national parishes - three years, counties, city districts of large cities and small towns without district division, provinces - five years. Deputies do not break with their previous work, perform deputy duties on a voluntary basis and have an imperative mandate: they can be early withdrawn by voters - citizens or elected by them assemblies of people's representatives.

Meetings of the people's representatives ensure the implementation on its territory of the Constitution, laws, political guidelines, decrees, decisions of higher local government bodies. They take local economic plans, the budget, the report on its execution, abolish and change the decrees of the local people's government of the corresponding level, create other local state bodies, ensure the protection of socialist property and legal private property of citizens, protect the rights and freedoms of citizens, ensure public order, equality men and women in political and civil rights, the rights of national minorities, the independence of collective organizations in the countryside. Unlike local governments in democratic countries (these bodies have autonomy), councils are in hierarchical subordination: subordinates are subordinate to higher (depending on the level of administrative-territorial units).

Regular sessions of people's congresses are held rarely: by law, at least once a year, extraordinary sessions can be convened at the request of 1/5 of the deputies.

Between the sessions, many of the powers of the people's congresses are carried out by the permanent committees they elect. They are created in all administrative-territorial units, except the grass-roots (rural municipality, village), where only the chairman and secretary of the assembly of the people's representatives is usually elected. Standing committees are also local government bodies, but subordinate to meetings of people's representatives. They consist of the chairman, his deputy, secretary and members. Standing committees conduct elections to higher-level assemblies of people's representatives, solve issues of political, economic, cultural life, education, tourism, have the right to introduce partial changes in plans for the development of the national economy of the territory, control the work of local governments, people's courts and people's procuratorates of the corresponding level, lower-level assemblies of people's representatives; they make decisions on personnel matters, assign local honorary titles.

Meetings of standing committees of local assemblies of People's Representatives should be convened at least once every two months. The current work of the standing committee is carried out by the council of the chairman of the standing committee, consisting of the chairman and his deputy (deputies).

Local governments of general competence

The executive bodies of the local people's congresses are local people's governments, acting on the basis of double subordination: to their assembly of people's representatives (and its standing committee between sessions of the assembly), as well as to a higher local people's government. Local people's governments are elected by assemblies of people's representatives. All of them are under the unified leadership of the State Council, forming a single vertical. Local people's governments carry out decisions of meetings of people's representatives and their standing committees, resolutions and orders of higher administrative bodies, and carry out local plans for the development of the national economy. To solve specific problems, departments and departments are created in them, there is a staff apparatus of civil servants.

With the consent of the people's governments of the provinces, the people's governments of counties and autonomous counties can form districts that are not administrative and territorial units and create appointed regional administrations - an intermediate link between the county and subordinate bodies, and in cities without district division - quarterly offices - the link between the city administration and the committees of the urban population (self-employed organizations). In the districts and city blocks of the people's congresses are not elected.

Public self-government

In accordance with the Constitution of the PRC, committees of the urban population and committees of the rural population are created at the place of residence. These grassroots mass self-government organizations, through which the population carries out "self-government, self-education and self-service & quot ;. They cover the territory where 100-200 families live. The committees consist of a chairman, a deputy, three to seven members who work on a voluntary basis. They are elected by the villagers or the city quarter through direct elections for a period of three years. Citizens who have reached the age of 18 have the right to elect and be elected to committees. The committees of the population decide the local affairs of their territory, consider petty civil disputes, inform the local people's government about the proposals of the population, propagate the Constitution, laws, state policy, educate citizens in the spirit of observing laws and taking care of public property.

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