Criminal law - History of the home state and law. Part 2

Criminal law

There are no cardinal changes in this branch of law in the post-war period. All legislative innovations relate, in the main, to individual legal institutions. One can only note one general trend - a certain intensification of criminal repression.

However, immediately after the war with Germany was a fairly broad amnesty. In 1947, the death penalty was abolished, although not for long - in 1950, it was restored for the most important state crimes (treason, espionage, diversion).

To increase vigilance and strengthen the protection of state secrets, on June 9, 1947, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR issued a decree on the responsibility for divulging state secrets and for the loss of documents containing state secrets, which also provided for a higher punishment than before . The day before, the Council of Ministers of the USSR adopted a resolution determining the list of information that is a state secret, the disclosure of which is punishable by law.

The state makes a new attempt to strengthen the fight against property crimes, and now attention is drawn to the protection of not only public but also personal property. June 4, 1947, two decrees of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR were adopted.

According to the first of them, theft, misappropriation, embezzlement or other theft of state property was punishable by imprisonment in a forced labor camp for a term of seven to ten years, with or without confiscation of property; In the presence of qualifying signs, deprivation of liberty increased to 25 years. For the theft of public property, the terms of deprivation of liberty were somewhat smaller, but their upper limit reached 20 years. The decree established responsibility even for failure to inform the authorities about a well-known impending or complete theft of state or public property.

The second decree increased the responsibility for the theft of personal property of citizens, bringing the sanction in the most serious cases (robbery) to 20 years of imprisonment with confiscation of property. A failure to report on robbery was also punished.

Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of April 7, 1948, "On criminal liability for the manufacture and sale of moonshine" significantly tightened the punishment for these crimes. Decrees of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of January 4, 1948, on strengthening criminal liability for rape, were sent to strengthen the protection of honor, health, and the lives of citizens. and of February 14, 1953, "On Strengthening Criminal Responsibility for Violating Safety Rules for Work in Coal and Shale Mines."

The Soviet Union responded to the appeal of the Conference of Peace-keepers in Stockholm by issuing a special act that was rather declarative in nature - the Law "On the Protection of the World" (1951), by which the propaganda of war was declared the gravest crime against humanity, and the perpetrators were to be surrendered and qualified as serious criminals. Practically, this law was not applied: in our country, which just came out of a terrible war, there were no outspoken hunters to call for the beginning of a new one.

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The Soviet Union, which had borne the brunt of the war against Nazi Germany and suffered the greatest human and material losses, emerged from it nevertheless politically strengthened. In the postwar alignment of forces, he headed a group of states that had followed the socialist path, together with whom they formed a socialist camp. At the other extreme, a new superpower - the United States of America, which has suffered little from the war, but has developed its economy through military production - has grown. Already soon there was a confrontation between yesterday's allies, which later turned into a cold war. The arms race began.

Under these conditions, the Soviet Union restored its industry and went further in the sphere of industrial production, achieving considerable success both in developing the peaceful economy and in armament. However, in agriculture successes were much more modest, which caused a shortage of food and raw materials, although the welfare of the people, of course, significantly improved, yet it was still far from the desired and planned level.

In the state system there are small changes. They are connected mainly with the transition from war to peace, as well as with attempts to improve the state mechanism.

Equally little noticeable changes in the law. They relate mainly to individual industries, legal institutions and norms. At the same time, the lawlessness that took place before the war is also noted now, although their scope has become much smaller.

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