Development of law, Financial law, Civil and economic...

4. Development of law

In the first post-war years, the development of law manifested itself as specific trends of a particular period, as well as general patterns.

Financial Law

The main event in this industry was the monetary reform, conducted in December 1947. The war, which caused enormous economic damage to our country, could not but affect the finances. Huge military expenditures, which are necessary but inherently unproductive, inevitably caused a large-scale emission of money, and consequently, a certain inflation. Of course, the depreciation of the ruble was in no way comparable to what happened after the civil war, but it still felt noticeable. Similar processes took place in foreign countries, including in the winning countries, not to mention the vanquished. In our country there was also one more factor, which led to an increase in the money supply in circulation. The fact is that, preparing for war, Germany, in order to undermine our economy, produced a considerable amount of artfully fabricated counterfeit Soviet money, which was difficult to distinguish from the real ones. Along with other circumstances, all this led to the implementation of the monetary reform.

The reform was carried out mainly through denomination, i.e. the replacement of old money with new ones with a change in their nominal value. Ten old rubles were exchanged for one new one. Deposits in savings banks were recalculated at a preferential rate: up to 3 thousand rubles. recalculation was made at a rate of one to one, up to 10 thousand - three old rubles for two new, more than 10 thousand - two for one. The conversion of state loans was carried out, with the bonds of all the former exchanged for new loans at a nominal value of three to one. Thus, the bulk of the population did not suffer from the reform itself. Lost a significant part of the money only speculative elements and citizens who for some reason did not dare to keep their money in savings banks.

Although the nominal wage remained at the same level, the prices in state trade in connection with the cancellation of the card system have grown significantly. Of course, this meant a reduction in real wages for citizens, who until now had only used relatively low prices for goods issued by cards. Therefore, for the low-paid workers and employees, students and graduate students, a surcharge was made to wages and scholarships, called by the people a "bread premium". Moreover, the course of the state to gradually reduce prices compensated for the losses of workers. In 1950, the Soviet ruble was transferred from the dollar to gold parity, which, despite all the wartime costs, was provided with a sufficient supply of gold in the treasury. In 1953 this stock was more than 2000 tons. The ruble exchange rate was raised in relation to foreign currency in the current period, which, however, was caused, not so much by economic as by political factors.

Civil and economic law

In the post-war years, the treaty as a means of legalizing economic ties in the socialized sector was again widely spread. In the decision of the Council of Ministers of the USSR of April 21, 1949, "On the conclusion of economic contracts," it was stressed that the contract concluded on the basis of the plan is recognized as the only correct form of the relationship between the government agencies. The system of general and local contracts was again envisaged, which became an important means of strengthening self-financing. Along with the system of general and local contracts, which was at that time basic, in some branches of the national economy, in particular in trade, direct contracts were also applied. The fight against contractual supplies unfolded. The arbitration bodies played an important role here, they refused to make claims in the absence of an agreement.

Civil law has contributed to solving such an acute problem as providing the population with housing. Along with the state housing construction in those conditions, it was also important to attract the people's funds. Thus, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR issued the decree on August 24, 1948, "On the right of citizens to purchase and construct individual houses," and the Council of Ministers of the USSR adopted a number of corresponding decrees. On the basis of these normative acts, citizens had the right to build or buy, on the right of personal property, both in the city and outside it, one residential building in one or two floors with a number of rooms from one to five inclusive with a total area not exceeding 60 m2. Executive committees of local Soviets obliged to allocate land for construction. At the same time, there was no need for an institution of development, stipulated by the legislation of the 1920s.

These acts were a practical success: citizens built a significant amount of residential ploshaly. The state provided assistance to the population by providing loans.

Family law undergoes a small but significant change: in 1948, marriages with foreigners were banned. In the decree on this occasion, the justification was given: Soviet women who married foreigners and found themselves abroad feel unwell and unfavorable under unusual conditions. I must say that the rationale was not contrived. Indeed, most of this kind of marriages turned out to be unsuccessful. Nevertheless, such excessive care for the family well-being of its citizens can hardly be considered sufficiently substantiated: after all, there have always been unsuccessful marriages in our country.

The matter here was not in caring for a man, but in the Stalinist isolationism developing after the war. At the end of the war and immediately after it, the interaction of our citizens, especially women, with foreigners - sailors of foreign ships, who came to Soviet ports, with foreign diplomats, and finally, students of Soviet universities from the countries of people's democracy - has broadened. This communication sometimes, though not so often, led to marriages. Now they have been banned. Such marriages, albeit unofficially, were considered as antipatriotic: who is able to trade the best country in the world for some other!

However, people who intend to marry foreigners, and after the ban, had the opportunity: one of the doctors could change their citizenship. However, the attempt to abandon Soviet citizenship for a woman could end badly: she could easily be suspected and accused of treason to the Motherland with all the repressive consequences that ensue from it. The eternal problem that above - Motherland or love, has acquired a very specific color.

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