Family law, Labor law - History of the domestic state and law. Part 2

Family law

Unlike other industries, there have been noticeable changes. This was done by the Fundamentals of Family Law of 1968 and the family codes of the union republics created on their basis, as well as by separate laws. The procedure for divorce, stipulated by the Decree of July 8, 1944, was simplified. According to the Fundamentals of Legislation on Marriage and Family, marriage could be terminated not only in the judicial, but in some cases in a simplified order - by the registry office. The two-stage passage of the case in court was canceled. Now the People's Court, taking measures to persuade the divorcee to keep the family, could immediately, if such attempts failed, lead to a decision to dissolve the marriage. Announcements about divorce proceedings were canceled.

It was very important to revive the institution of establishing paternity, banned by the mentioned Decree of 1944. The basis provided for the judicial order of such an establishment and the criteria for recognizing a man as a father, and exhaustive. There were three of them: living together and keeping a common household with the mother of the child and the defendant before the birth of the child; joint education or maintenance of their child; evidence, with certainty confirming the defendant's recognition of paternity (Article 16). The law allowed and voluntary recognition of a man's paternity, which was previously excluded.

The legislation places great emphasis on the establishment of the rights and obligations of parents in relation to children on their education and the responsibilities of children towards their parents. The Constitution of the USSR stressed (Article 66) that citizens of the USSR are obliged to care for the upbringing of children, to prepare them for socially useful work, to raise worthy members of a socialist society. Parental rights can not be carried out in contradiction with the interests of children. Children are required to take care of their parents and help them.

Labor law

The development of this branch of law is determined by the Constitution, the Fundamentals of Legislation of the USSR and the Union Republics on Labor in 1970, the Labor Code of the Union Republics, current legislation.

The general line of development of labor law is the improvement of the working and living conditions of Soviet citizens. The new Constitution developed the concept of the right to work, including the right to choose a profession, occupation and work in accordance with vocation, abilities, vocational training, education and taking into account social needs. It reaffirmed the citizens' previous rights to rest, health, healthy and safe working conditions, unionization, participation in production management, material security in old age, in case of illness, as well as loss of ability to work, loss of a bread-winner.

An important place in the legislation is paid to benefits in the field of labor of women and youth: work is defined that prohibits the use of women's labor and work of persons under the age of 18, it is prohibited to employ workers and employees under the age of 18 to night and overtime work, and for women such work is limited, guarantees are established for employment, and dismissal of pregnant women, mothers breastfeeding, and women with children under the age of one year is not allowed for persons under 16 years of age, except for cases, the reservation of employment for young people and on production training is established. By decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of September 2, 1981, women are allowed partially paid leave to take care of a child before reaching the age of one year and additional leave without pay, until the child reaches one and a half years.

Measures are being taken to regulate wages with a general tendency to increase it. In 1968, its minimum level (up to 70 rubles) was raised. In the 70's. New terms of payment for labor in the non-production branches of the national economy for workers in mass professions and specialties directly serving the population (nurses, sellers, librarians, etc.) are introduced. Wages for many workers in the manufacturing industries (in ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, coal and textile industries, and in railways) have been increased.

Changes are made to the pension legislation. By the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of June 13, 1977, taking into account the special working conditions at the iron and steel enterprises, the maximum old-age pension was increased for certain categories of employees of these enterprises. On September 11, 1979, a supplement to the pension for work after reaching the retirement age was introduced January, 1980 the sizes of the extra charge to the pension on an old age for the continuous experience of work at one enterprise, in establishment, organization are increased. In 1980, a decree was passed to further improve the provision of pensions for disabled veterans of the Great Patriotic War and families of servicemen who died at the front; On September 2, 1981, the minimum pensions were raised and conditions for the appointment of old-age pensions were determined with incomplete work experience for women who gave birth to five or more children.

Notable improvements were made in the sphere of regulation of working time and rest time. In the years 1966-1967. rebuilt the working week. Now the majority of workers and employees worked for five days and rested two days a week, except for educational, entertaining, some cultural institutions, etc.

The rights of trade unions have expanded. The Constitution enshrined the AUCCTU the possibility of legislative initiative.

In 1983, a new form of management of businesses and institutions was established. This began to deal directly with the meetings of labor collectives, and in between them the administration and elected bodies of party, trade union and Komsomol organizations jointly. Since at that time the trade unions united all the working people, the meetings of the work collective practically coincided with the trade union meetings, and it was very difficult to distinguish their rights. In practice, it turned out that meetings of the work collective were more concerned with production issues, and trade union bodies with social issues.

The problem of labor discipline was still acute. In order to fight for it, it was envisaged to reduce the regular vacation for the truants by the number of days of absenteeism, transfer to another lower-paid job for a certain period, etc. The material responsibility of workers and employees for damage caused by their fault to the enterprise in the performance of their labor duties number and for the production of defective products. To reduce the turnover of staff, it was established that a worker or employee, upon his dismissal at his own request, should warn the administration about this for two months. All these activities were carried out mainly at the end of this period. A noticeable role in improving labor discipline was played by comradely courts, the provisions of which were approved in 1977 by the Presidiums of the Supreme Soviets of the Union Republics.

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