Aims, tasks and functions of the civil service
The question of the goals and tasks of the civil service, despite its importance, is largely a production character. The fact is that the methodology of goal-setting in management in general and in public administration in particular is least developed. The goals of the civil service can be viewed as a form of awareness and consolidation of socially significant urgent problems by state bodies in relevant regulatory legal acts.
Currently, Russia does not have a well-defined "tree of goals". Theoretical developments on this score are few, besides, they often contradict each other. Thus, Yu. II. Starilov believes that the main goal of the civil service is the practical implementation of the functions of the state, the solution of its tasks, ensuring the welfare of society, satisfying public interests on the basis of the principles and provisions established in the US Constitution, federal laws and laws of US subjects.
In turn, A.F. Nozdrachev distinguishes the following goals of public service:
- streamlining the work of the state apparatus;
- setting requirements for functions and powers in public positions;
- determination of competence and professional preparedness of civil servants;
- the regulation of methods and procedures for analyzing and evaluating the effectiveness of the state apparatus;
- the formation of conditions for the provision of civil servants, including material, social and legal guarantees of public service.
It's easy to see that in the last approach to defining the goals of the civil service, state officials are basically locked in hardware needs, and the needs and interests of people act in the background.
Government objectives can be classified:
1) by the degree of public importance:
- strategic, related to the quality of life of society, its preservation or transformation;
- tactical, defining specific actions in time and space to achieve strategic goals;
2) Based on the results:
3) in time:
4) in the spheres of social life:
When explaining the tasks of the civil service, it is necessary to take into account that civil servants actively participate in drafting laws, programs expressing the country's domestic and foreign policy, proposals on changes in the structure of state bodies, current decisions of public authorities, and provision of public services. Therefore, among the main tasks of the civil service are the following:
- ensuring the constitutional order;
- development of a strategy for economic, social, political development of the country;
- selection of personnel capable of implementing the country's development strategy;
- the creation of organizational structures of state power;
- making decisions on important operational issues of the country's life;
- protection of rights, freedoms and legitimate interests of citizens, creating conditions for the development of the human person;
- creating the necessary conditions for the implementation of functions of government bodies.
According to VD Citizen, in the public administration system, the public service is designed to perform a two-pronged task. First, it is the provision of administrative (hardware) support to the country's political leadership; secondly, the study of governance problems and interests of all strata of the population, as the state bodies so need.
Thus, each type of civil service fulfills its tasks established in regulatory legal acts.
The concept of public service functions and their types in regulatory legal acts have not yet been determined, which reflects one of the gaps in the legal regulation of this institution. In the scientific and educational literature, the question of the functions of the civil service is primarily of a production character. Some authors under the functions of the civil service understand independent and relatively isolated types of state and official actions. Others - consider the functions of public service as an organization for the practical implementation of legal norms.
Functions of the civil service - the main directions of the impact of civil servants on public relations to achieve the goals and objectives of the state.
It can also be argued that the functions of the civil service as a whole coincide with the functions of public authorities and public administration. The last statement is based on the fact that the state service in accordance with the legislation of the United States is called upon to ensure the authority of state authorities.Functions performed by civil servants are divided into socio-political (general) and special-legal.
general functions of the civil service include:
- management of public affairs (in this regard, public service can be considered as an organizational institution);
- goal-setting - a function whose purpose is to determine the parameters of the optimal functioning of the state and society as a whole, the model of its future development, the algorithm of state management;
- forecasting and modeling of the development of society and government bodies (this function is based on the analysis of social development tendencies, it is connected with the anticipation of changes in society and public authorities caused by any events or purposeful actions);
Planning is a decision taken beforehand about what to do, when to do and who will do in state bodies (during planning, the directions, proportions, rates, quantitative and qualitative indicators of the development of certain processes in society and state bodies);
- organization - the creation and streamlining of the structure of the civil service and state bodies, their states, public administration processes for the sustainable and dynamic development of society and state bodies (the purpose of the civil service is to organize the life of citizens and, as you know, civil servants directly or indirectly ensure the process of social organization of a person);
- control - establishing the conformity or inconsistency of the indicators of the development of society and public service to internal or external standards and the level set by plans and programs;
- accounting - fixing in quantitative terms the processes taking place in society and in the civil service;
- coordination - coordination of activities of various state bodies to achieve the common goals and objectives of the state;
- information support for the activities of state bodies and society's life, i.e. collection, receipt, processing, analysis of information necessary for the implementation of public activities.
In recent years, public service is increasingly seen as a producer of state social services. This refers to education, health care, security, etc. Therefore, we can talk about such a function of the civil service as the production of public services.
The state service fulfills its educational function. It plays an important role in forming in the public consciousness a respectful attitude towards the human person, the institutions of the state and law.
For the dynamic development of society, the regulatory function of the civil service is of great importance. State employees play an active role in regulating the relations between social groups in the economic, political, social and ideological spheres of society. For these purposes, rules and regulations are established, and the direction of actions of citizens and civil servants is set. This is manifested in the development of various programs, draft laws, political decision-making.
special-legal functions of the civil service are:
- law-making (civil servants take an active part in drafting normative legal acts, their expertise, analytical and reference work of the law-making process);
- law enforcement (civil servants implement the norms of constitutions, laws and other normative legal acts of the United States and RF subjects).
- law enforcement (civil servants protect the established norms of law from violations by subjects of legal relations, for this purpose, control and supervision bodies, methods of coercion are used).
Specific functions of civil service structures and civil servants are established by regulations on structural divisions of the government bodies and job descriptions.
The functions of the civil service are carried out with the help of legal, economic, organizational and administrative, socio-psychological methods.
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