Korenizaniya state apparatus of national areasHistorians and nationalist nationalists say about the Russification of the national borderlands, supposedly carried out by the Communist Party. In fact, from the very first years of Soviet power, the party took the opposite course - to the rooting of the state and public apparatus of the national districts.
X Congress of the RCP (B.) in the resolution "On the next tasks of the party in the national question" decided ... to help the laboring masses of non-United States peoples ... develop and strengthen in their own court, administration, economic bodies, authorities composed of local people, who know the life and psychology of the local population ... ". The 12th Congress of the RCP (B.) Once again stressed the need for this.
The problem of Korenization consists of two interrelated issues: the introduction of the language of indigenous peoples in all spheres of state and public activity of the corresponding national-state units, primarily in the work of state bodies, and involving representatives of the indigenous population in the authorities, features of this population enjoying its confidence.
The introduction of local languages into official circulation was far from easy. First of all, some peoples did not have their own literary language, their writing; in many languages, modern political and legal terminology was absent or almost absent. A major obstacle was the shortage of workers in the administrative staff who speak the appropriate languages. Sometimes the chauvinistic manifestations of some local workers also prevented.
In order to attract more national personnel to the state apparatus, all methods were used: training on the ground, sending young people on preferential terms to educational institutions in Moscow, Leningrad, and other cultural centers. A large number of non-United States workers were trained in all sorts of special short-term courses.
Despite all the difficulties, Korenizatsiya was a success. If in 1920 in Tataria the office work in the Tatar language was delivered in 20% of the Tatar rural Soviets, then in 1923 it was carried out in half of such village soviets. In Turkestan even in 1921 about 90% of the delegates of the regional and uyezd congresses of the Soviets belonged to the indigenous population. If at the First Congress of Soviets of Chuvashia in 1920 the Chuvash was less than half the delegates, then at the next congress in 1922 - about 85%. This corresponds to the percentage of the titular population in these areas.
Work on korenizatsii continued in the following years. She gave a two-fold result. On the one hand, national personnel were involved in the state apparatus and this made the Soviet government really international. On the other hand, belonging to the non-United States population has become a kind of privilege, allowing one to occupy certain posts not by business qualities, but only by nationality. Sometimes for this purpose the requirements to the business and cultural level of the staff were reduced, to their professional suitability, which of course could not affect the quality of the work of the state apparatus, institutions of science, culture, and so on. Favorable conditions were created for the development of nationalism.
Development of economic management bodies
The transition to peaceful construction required the reorganization of the management of the economy. VI Lenin proposed to unite the activities of economic agencies in a single economic center. This center was the Council of Labor and Defense, a new Regulation on which approved the VIII All-United States Congress of Soviets. The chairman of the Council of People's Commissars was the chairman of the Council of People's Commissars, and the members - the commissars for military affairs, labor, communications, agriculture, food, RCT, chairman of the Supreme Economic Council and representative of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions. At the SRT was assigned the coordination of the activities of departments in the field of ensuring the country's defense and economic construction.
As regional bodies of economic management in 1921, regional, provincial and district economic meetings (ECOSO) were established. The grass-roots bodies of the STR became economic meetings at enterprises, as well as peasant committees for improving agriculture.
One of the most important functions of the SRT was the direction of the work of the economic commissariats in accordance with the unified state plan. To develop such a plan and general supervision of its implementation in February 1921, the State General Planning Commission (Gosplan) was established. The first chairman of the State Planning Committee was the head of GOELRO GM. Krzhizhanovsky. When economic commissariats were established planning commissions.
The Supreme Economic Council of the republics have now finally become departments that direct only industry. At the same time, their internal structure has also changed. Enterprises that were under the authority of the Supreme Economic Council were divided into two groups. Part remained in direct subordination to the Supreme Economic Council, all the rest were transferred to the local administration. Accordingly, the number of command posts in the Supreme Council of the Supreme Council of the RSFSR was reduced from 52 to 16.
According to the Constitution of the USSR, the Supreme Council of the National Economy was regarded as a united People's Commissariat. He directed the Supreme Council of the Supreme Economic Council of the Union Republics, which at the same time were subordinate to their CEC and the Council of People's Commissars. All industry in accordance with this was divided into all-Union, republican and local.
During the period under review, the structure of the industry's management bodies in the VSNKh system has changed many times. With the transition to self-financing enterprises received greater autonomy, not only economically, but also administratively. True, the subjects of law were not specific factories and factories, and their associations - trusts. Market relations, established in industry, led to the emergence of competition, which in turn led to a decline in prices for industrial products. This put the trusts on the brink of ruin. To prevent such a process, in 1922 syndicates were created that combined and organized the sale of products to a certain range of enterprises that make up the whole industry. Syndicates have become monopolies in each industry, which has significantly influenced the dynamics of prices, which have steadily crept up.
As the industry recovers, the economic opportunities of enterprises have increased. This allowed in 1927 to strengthen their economic and administrative independence. Self-supporting rights passed from trusts to specific enterprises.
The best forms of industrial management at the end of the period were industry-specific self-supporting associations (for metallurgy, machine building, electrical engineering, etc.), which crowned the system of self-financing in industry.
A characteristic feature of industrial management was the desire to combine functional and industry principles. Such a system was established in 1921. With the functional method, the subordinate bodies or enterprises are managed by separate functions: planning, procurement, financing, technical support. The branch principle assumes that one body manages the whole branch of economy and industry on all issues.The ruin of the village as a result of the war and natural disasters that struck Russia in 1920-1921 caused the creation of emergency bodies, which were entrusted with the care of the rise of agriculture (sowing committees, then - agricultural commissions, committees and councils). However, according to the decision of the 10th All-United States Congress of Soviets, such bodies were liquidated, and the People's Commissariat of Agriculture, provincial and district land departments of the executive committees began to fully manage agriculture.
With the formation of the USSR, the People's Commissariats were classified as republican People's Commissariats. However, the need to resolve certain issues on an all-Union scale led to the convening of meetings of the People's Commissars of Agriculture of all the republics. By decision
Council of People's Commissars of the USSR such meetings to discuss general issues of agricultural policy and agreeing on current plans began to be convened regularly. In 1929, the system of agricultural management of the Union republics was improved. There is a need to create a single center for this industry. Accordingly, the Central Executive Committee of the Union on December 7, 1929 established the Union-Republican Union of People's Commissars of Agriculture of the USSR.
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