Land law., Collective farm law. - History of domestic state and law

Land law.

In October 1922, the All-United States Central Executive Committee adopted the Land Code of the RSFSR, which regulated the land use of agricultural and urban land. The legal status of non-agricultural lands was weakly fixed. With the formation of the USSR land use issues were reflected in the all-Union legislation. In December 1928, the Central Executive Committee of the USSR publishes the General Principles of Land Use and Land Management of the USSR.

The land legislation of the period under consideration allowed in some cases the transformation of forests into agricultural land. The priority was given to the use of state farms as the best lands. In 1930, the lands of the former kulak farms were transferred to collective farms and now consisted of two parts: public and personal land funds. The process of creating collective farms was long and complicated. Initially, most peasants preferred to unite their land plots (courtyards) in land societies (communities) with periodic equalizing redistribution of arable land. Prosperous peasants (kulaks) created land societies without reorganization in the form of cuts, farm sites or did not enter land societies at all.

Initially, Soviet legislation did not prevent the coexistence of various forms of peasant land use, although it created advantages for collective (collective farm) forms, but not in the form of land societies, which in their organization were very far from Soviet ideals. The main unit of such land use was the peasant household - a family-labor association of persons for joint management with equal rights (regardless of gender and age). The Land Code allowed from 1925 to process the land to all willing citizens and foreigners who want to process it with their own labor. The former landowners could not obtain land in the provinces where they had former estates.

According to the Land Code, land could be leased, if the economy was weakened by natural disasters, lack of inventory and labor. However, sublease was banned. Since 1925, it has been allowed to use the labor of farm laborers as auxiliary, additional labor. In 1930, the rent of land and the labor of farm laborers, as well as the pre-existing landlord, unearned peasant and Islamic-church land use in the regions of Central Asia were banned. The main form was the indefinite labor land use. Since 1921, a policy was pursued to limit land redistribution among peasants - members of land societies.

The urban areas were divided into three types: residential areas (occupied by buildings), public lands (streets, roads, etc.) and urban areas (forests, agricultural lands, etc.).

According to Decree of the Central Executive Committee and the SEC of October 5, 1925, complete or partial reserves could be created for the protection of individual areas of nature, animals, plants, rocks, and accordingly economic activities there were forbidden or restricted.

Collective farm law.

In August 1924, the CEC and the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR adopted a resolution "On Agricultural Cooperatives," which regulated the activities of cooperatives (associations, artels and communes). The cooperatives had the status of a legal entity. The main forms of the collective farm movement were partnerships for joint cultivation of land and artels. The share of communes was reduced, and the agricultural cooperatives in 1922-1923. by their structure and activity, they became closer to partnerships for joint cultivation of land than to agricultural communes. The resolution of the Central Executive Committee and the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR on March 16, 1927 recognized as the most common form of collective farming a partnership for the joint cultivation of land, which was the least complex form of cooperation. The resolution recommended the transfer from partnerships for the joint processing of land to artels and communes. Meanwhile, the peasants did not want to abandon their personal farms completely, uniting only a part of the means and efforts in the common interest. Often this was the most reasonable form of management, which, however, contradicted the interests of building a new socialist society in the countryside. By order of the collective farms received various benefits and advantages, the principle of voluntary membership in the collective farm was fixed. Since 1929 the construction of the MTS has begun, which provided technical assistance to the collective farms on a contractual basis. This was to strengthen the collective farms and tie them closer to the state.

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