COMMUNICATION AND COMMUNICATION MANAGEMENT
Content of management in the field of communication and mass communications
The legal framework for activities in the field of communication is established by Federal Law No. 126-FZ of 07.07.2003 "On Communications". In accordance with this law, in the United States, communications organizations are established and operate on the basis of the unity of the economic space, in the conditions of competition and the variety of forms of ownership. The state provides equal communication to the communication organizations regardless of their forms of ownership. Communication networks and communication facilities may be in federal ownership, property of US entities, municipal property, as well as in the ownership of citizens and legal entities.
The law provides for two main types of communication - telecommunications and postal services. According to the Law, telecommunications are any emissions, transmission or reception of signs, signals, voice information, written text, images, sounds or messages of any kind over the radio system, wired, optical and other electromagnetic systems. Postal communication is a kind of communication, which is a single industrial and technological complex of technical and transport means that provides reception, processing, transportation, delivery (delivery) of mail items, as well as postal money transfers.
Telecommunication includes telephone, telegraph, mobile (mobile), mobile radiotelephone communication, mobile satellite radio communication and radio communication through technical means intended for transmission and/or reception of radio waves, consisting of one or several transmitting and (or) receiving devices or a combination of such devices and including auxiliary equipment.Relationships in the field of mail services are governed by international treaties of the United States, specified by law, Federal Law No. 176-FZ of 17.07.1999 "On Postal Communication", other federal laws and other normative legal acts of the USA. Activities in the field of postal communication in the United States are carried out on the basis of principles of observance of legality; accessibility for all citizens and legal entities of postal services as one of the means of obtaining and exchanging information; observance of the rights of users of postal services; freedom of transit of postal items throughout the territory of the United States; equality of the rights of citizens and legal entities to participate in activities in the field of postal communication of general use and to use the results of this activity; ensuring the right of everyone to a secret communication; ensuring the stability of the postal communication network and its manageability; unity of rules, standards, requirements and norms in the field of postal communication.
In the United States the following types of postal services are provided:
1) postal communication of general use, carried out by state unitary enterprises, state postal communication institutions, as well as by other postal communication operators;
2) special communication of the federal executive body responsible for managing communications activities;
3) federal courier service.
The legal basis for the functioning of the seal and mass communications in the United States is the Constitution, US Law No. 2124-1 of 27.12.1991 On Mass Media, other federal laws and other normative legal acts of the USA, as well as laws and other normative legal acts of US subjects in this field.
Public administration in the field of printing and mass communications includes norm-setting, law enforcement activities, as well as rendering public services in the creation and functioning of mass media and mass communications, television and radio broadcasting, the use of the radio-frequency spectrum and orbital positions of communication satellites for the purpose of broadcasting, the development of mass communication media and the dissemination of mass media, in the sphere of information exchange, broadcasting, in addition information, public computer networks in the field of electronic media, printing, publishing and printing.
According to the current legislation, to the media include periodicals, radio, television, video programs, newsreel programs, as well as other forms of periodic dissemination of mass information . At the same time, a periodical printed publication means a newspaper, a magazine, an almanac, a newsletter, a different publication, which has a permanent title, the current issue and is published at least once a year. A radio, television, video, newsreel program is understood as a set of periodic audio, audio-visual messages and materials (broadcasts), which has a permanent name and is published (on the air) also at least once a year.
The subject of public administration in this sphere is also the relations connected with the exercise of the right to search, receive, transfer, produce and disseminate information; the use of information technology, as well as the protection of information, defined by Federal Law No. 149-FZ of July 27, 2006, "On Information, Information Technologies and Information Protection."
According to this Law information - information (messages, data) regardless of the form of their presentation. Documented information - recorded on a tangible medium by documenting information with details that allow such information to be determined or in the cases specified by US law its material carrier. Email - information transmitted or received by the user of the information and telecommunications network.
Information can be the object of public, civil and other legal relations. It can be freely used by any person and transferred by one person to another person, unless federal laws establish restrictions on access to information or other requirements for the procedure for its provision or distribution. Information holder is the person who independently created the information or received the right to authorize or restrict access to information determined by any signs on the basis of law or contract.
Information depending on the order of its provision or distribution is divided:
for information freely distributed;
information provided by agreement of persons participating in the relevant relationship;
information that, in accordance with federal laws, is subject to provision or dissemination. Provision of information - actions aimed at obtaining information by a certain range of persons or transmitting information to a certain circle of persons. Dissemination of information - actions aimed at obtaining information by an uncertain circle of persons or transferring information to an undefined circle of persons;
information, the dissemination of which in the United States is limited or prohibited.Restricting access to information is established by federal laws in order to protect the foundations of the constitutional order, morality, health, rights and legitimate interests of others, ensure the country's defense and state security. It is mandatory to respect the confidentiality of information, access to which is limited by federal laws. The protection of information constituting state secrets is carried out in accordance with US law on state secrets. The laws establish the conditions for classifying information as information constituting a trade secret, official secret and other secrets, compulsory observance of the confidentiality of such information, as well as responsibility for its disclosure. Information technologies are processes, methods of searching, collecting, storing, processing, providing, disseminating information and ways to implement such processes and methods. State regulation in the field of application of information technology provides: 1) regulation of relations related to the search, receipt, transmission, production and dissemination of information using information technology (information), based on principles established by law; 2) development of information systems for various purposes to provide citizens (individuals), organizations, state bodies and local governments with information, as well as ensuring the interaction of such systems; 3) creating conditions for the effective use of information and telecommunications networks in the United States, including the Internet network; and other similar information and telecommunication networks. State bodies and local self-government bodies, in accordance with their authority, participate in the development and implementation of targeted programs for the application of information technologies, and create information systems and provide access to the information contained therein in the United States language and the state language of the corresponding republic within the United States.
Protecting information in according to the Federal Law "On Information, Information Technologies and Information Protection"; is the adoption of legal, organizational and technical measures aimed at: 1) ensuring the protection of information from unauthorized access, destruction, modification, blocking, copying, provision, dissemination, as well as from other illegal actions with respect to such information; 2) observance of confidential information of restricted access; 3) realization of the right to access to information.
In order to protect information, the information owner, as well as the information system operator, must ensure: 1) preventing unauthorized access to information and (or) transferring it to persons who do not have the right to access information; 2) timely detection of unauthorized access to information; 3) preventing the possibility of adverse consequences of violation of the order of access to information; 4) preventing the impact on technical means of processing information, as a result of which their functioning is disrupted; 5) the possibility of immediate restoration of information, modified or destroyed due to unauthorized access to it; 6) constant control over ensuring the level of security of information.
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