Motivational approach to competition
In order to understand the origins of competition, we turn to competition motives and cooperation of the rival (cooperating) parties. The motivational approach to competition and cooperation is based on the idea of confrontation between incompatible intentions and goals, guiding the behavior of participants in interpersonal interaction. The strategies of the participants in the interaction can be so closely connected that along with the desire for competition, there are also various situations of cooperation. There are several reasons for this behavior:
A - the maximization of the winnings of the other (altruism);
B - the maximization of the overall win (cooperation);
B - minimizing the differences between own and another's winnings (equality);
D - maximizing your own winnings (individualism);
D - maximization of relative winnings (rivalry);
Е - minimization of the win of another (aggression).
Each modification of the motives reflects a certain level of cooperative or competitive behavior of the enterprise. If we accept altruism (A) as a characteristic of the highest measure of cooperative behavior, and aggression (E) as a characteristic of the highest measure of competitive behavior, then we can propose the following scale of cooperativeness and competitiveness of behavior:
The diversity of group and interpersonal behavior allows us to assume the continuity of the scale of social motives: individualism, as it grows, increasingly acquires the features of rivalry, rivalry as it increases - the features of aggression. Similarly, the motive of equality contains the features of cooperation, cooperation - features of altruism. If the enterprise is guided primarily by the motive of rivalry, in the second place - by the motive of aggression, then its behavior will be closer to the rivalry. If it is guided primarily by the motive of aggression, secondarily by the motive of rivalry, then its behavior will be closer to aggression.
In the commodity market, these or other motives for competition and cooperation manifest depending on the shape of the market. In the conditions of polypolia (a perfect market), the economic entities represented on the market are more guided by the motives of equality and cooperation, in the conditions of oligopoly - motives of individualism and rivalry. The more the polypopoly passes into the oligopoly, the more the motive of equality is replaced by the motive of individualism. The closer the oligopoly to monopoly, the stronger the motive of rivalry. With the intensification of the motive of rivalry, unfair competition arises, leading, as it increases, to aggression.
For competing parties is characterized reflexive interaction, whose logic is based on the fact that the conflicting parties reproduce each other's reasoning. The main objects of these arguments are the real foothold of the conflict (parameter vector); a foothold, as one of the parties represents it; bridgehead, as one of the parties understands it, in the opinion of the other party (the first level of reflection); bridgehead, as it is understood by one of the parties, in the opinion of the other side, as the first party thinks (second level of reflection), etc.
If the first side sees only a real bridgehead, and the second side also sees the display of the bridgehead as a competitor (the goal that the opponent has, and the opponent's strategy in achieving this goal), the second party has the ability to perform a reflective control over the competitor's activities, to give him grounds, from which he could logically withdraw his own, but a decision predetermined by the other party. In addition, the second party can correct their actions: change the beachhead or goal (get away from competition) or choose a different strategy.
The side having a higher reflection is in a preferential position and with the equality of the scientific and technical potentials of the parties has a great chance of success. Therefore, in a competitive environment, if one of the parties is going to reflexively control the actions of an opponent, the other party is forced to take protective measures (to keep the secret of commercial and scientific and technical information, to conduct an examination of incoming information) and to carry out a response reflexive impact . The latter may have an active or protective nature. In the first case, the defending party acts in the same way as the rival: it gives him false, but profitable information about the bridgehead, hoping that it will be perceived as the basis for making technical, economic and engineering decisions (reflexive control). In the second case, the defending party conveys false information about his vision of reflexive influence on the part of the opponent, expecting that this information will be the basis for the opponent to make erroneous decisions on reflexive influence (counterreflexive control).
If rivals have an equal degree of reflection, then both parties carry out either reflexive or complex (reflexive and counterreflexive) control. The choice of the type of reflexive interaction depends on the motives of behavior that guide the parties, and their preparedness to influence the opponent. In turn, the degree of reflection affects the choice of certain motives of competitive behavior (equality, rivalry, aggression): the higher the degree of reflection (the more developed the intelligence and the disinformation system of the opponent), the more grounds for increasing the degree of competitiveness of behavior. Under such assumptions, a certain type of reflexive influence will correspond to each motive of the competitive decision of the innovators (Table 5.2). As can be seen from Table. 5.2, the strengthening of the degree of reflection contributes to increasing the chances of success and can compensate to a certain extent the backlog in the scientific and technical potential of a party or strengthen the superiority of one of the parties with equal potentials.
In a market economy, there are ample opportunities for the subject's reflective influence on his competitors. For example, a bank closely associated with the activities of subject X may provide concessional loans
Table 5.2. The nature of the reflexive interaction and the chances for the success of the parties with different motives of competitive behavior
for Y in order to encourage his activities in the direction desired by X. But also in this case can strive to create a X strong> desirable for U to represent his activities, for example, by leaking information about the third party's conclusion of a contract of intent that would misinform X. Possibilities of reflexive influence on the competitor can be most easily realized in the case when one of the parties (for example, a foreign partner) has a lot of experience in competition, and a friend side of such an experience is not.
Using legal methods to overcome the aggression of a competitor, manifested in the form of a reflexive effect, is difficult, because this impact has an indirect and secretive character. Enterprises to protect against such an impact must take measures to comply with commercial secrets in part of their chosen strategy of scientific and technological development, strategic plans for growth and conversion activities, choice of positions in competition in different markets. Another compelling measure of protection against false information is a thorough analysis of external information used in strategic decisions in order to weed out possible misinformation.
However, it should be borne in mind that the commercial secret for technical innovation reduces the pace of scientific and technological development (the rate of distribution of innovations), and this can have adverse consequences for the national economy.
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