Politico-legal doctrine of F. Nietzsche
One of the most notable representatives of the racist political and legal views that formed the basis of the ideology of Nazism was the German philosopher, poet and composer Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (1844-1900).
Born in Saxony, in the family of a Lutheran pastor. He studied at Bonn and Leipzig universities. At the age of 23, he was drafted into the PUnited States army and enlisted in the horse artillery, but, having received a concussion, was demobilized. At the age of 25 he became a professor of classical philology at the University of Basel. During the Franco-PUnited States War in 1870, Mr .. enrolled as a volunteer in a medical unit and went to Alsace to take care of the wounded. After that, the 35-year-old Nietzsche began to show the first signs of mental disorder, which he inherited from his father.
As a result of mental illness, he had to leave the professor. Relieving suffering from the unbearable headache of a favorable climate, Nietzsche constantly changed his place of residence, while very poor and for a long time did not linger. The periods of the thinker's madness alternated with glimpses of creativity.
F. Nietzsche lived only 56 years old, the last 20 years of his life suffered from a mental disorder. He ceased his creative activity at the age of 45. The philosopher died on August 25, 1900 in a psychiatric hospital in Weimar.
The main works of the philosopher include: "The Greek state. Preface to the unwritten book, " (1871); That's what Zarathustra said (1883-1885); Beyond Good and Evil (1885-1886); "The twilight of idols, or how they philosophize with a hammer" (1888); Anti-Christian. The Curse of Christianity (1888).
F. Nietzsche admired the caste system and did not accept contemporary bourgeois society and the state where, in his opinion, the suffrage, parliamentarism, natural human rights ensured the rule of pathetic, insignificant people who, flirting with the mob, are in power. The thinker believed that the arithmetic gray majority, which dominates in the conditions of bourgeois democracy, suppresses the potential of the "best."
The caste system, the slavery of the ancient model, the feudal "step hierarchy", the philosopher considered the open and total domination of the aristocracy to be the vital conditions for the formation, existence and preservation of not only peoples, nations, cultures, but also man as a social being. >
F. Nietzsche is an apologist for the aristocracy, the nobility, but not by birth, but from a new philosophical elite, the aristocracy of the spirit, which was written about by Plato, called Nietzsche "king of philosophers". This dominant caste - caste of "divine chosen" (scale Lycurgus), "Olympians", "geniuses", the creator of a new, aristocratic culture, does not engage in everyday work, and therefore needs the existence of slaves.
Nietzsche rejects the theory of a social contract, believing that between "ruling" and slaves no contract is possible. The state and law are the result of war, and their purpose is to protect and maintain the relations of domination and slavish subordination. The state power, according to Nietzsche, is the embodied "will to power". dominant. The desire for domination is recognized by him as the main of vital and necessary human motives. According to Nietzsche, only the bearer of the "will to power" and can be the creator of cultural values. However, the importance of domination in Nietzsche is primarily not economic or material power over people, but the power of the spiritual, acquired over people by the power of outstanding spiritual qualities.
According to Nietzsche, "the right is a phenomenon, derived from the will to power, the reflex of power." If our power is shaken and falls, our right disappears; and vice versa, if we become more powerful, then the rights of others disappear on us. " The philosopher is sure that "there is no right, which in its essence is not an appropriation, usurpation, violence". Rejecting the classical ideas of natural law with its principles of freedom and equality, F. Nietzsche proceeded from the inequality of the rights of "strong" and weak (it's not about the "gentlemen" and "slaves" in the socio-political terms). According to Nietzsche, "weak", even if their slavish souls are draped in royal robes, simply do not "deserve" their rights, i. they did not overcome themselves, they did not acquire a legal feeling corresponding to the values of a new, aristocratic culture. Weak must die, and the "strongest" - to win. Hence the aphorism of Nietzsche: "Falling - push!" The right, according to Nietzsche, is a privilege that must be earned in the struggle for moral and spiritual self-perfection.
Right and the state act in Nietzsche as instruments of the struggle of various forces and wills. The sympathies of the thinker were on the side of the "primitive military state" Lycurgus type, in which the "military castes" pyramidally grow. Nietzsche was an admirer of the culture and order of the ancient Greek Sparta and Ancient Rome, the power in which belonged to the "best", the strongest. The reason for the death of the Hellenic and Roman cultures was that the thinker did not consider the barbarian conquests, he was convinced that they fell victim to historical Christianity, concealed behind the imaginary care of the "weak" and destitute and, most importantly, a false declaration of equality.
F. Nietzsche was an opponent of liberal, democratic and general Christian values. The philosopher wrote: "Liberal state institutions immediately cease to be liberal, as soon as they are achieved - and then there are no more persecutors of freedom more vicious and adamant than liberal institutions. "Liberalism" - I translate: this is the appeal to the cattle. "
F. Nietzsche believed that the right of contemporary bourgeois society is "herd legislation," making no exceptions for anyone, turning everyone into a "herd of slaves and plebeians". The philosopher despised bourgeois society with its liberalism and the "ideology of the average man", called this society stagnant, routine, and the people making it are weak, weak-willed and limited.
According to Nietzsche, "spoiled The state generates a "spoiled culture, and "spoiled" culture produces "spoiled of people. Only in the distant future does Nietzsche come across the outline of a new high culture capable of nurturing a "higher genius" and the future state as a free and powerful union "geniuses" and supermen .
The superman for F. Nietzsche is a strong personality, different from ordinary people, above all an indestructible will. A true superman is a genius and a rebel, a destroyer of old values and a creator of new ones. He dominates not over the herd, but over whole generations. At the same time, the superman is neither a tyrant nor a dictator, it is a kind of hard-to-reach (but quite real) ideal, referring to a sad love for all, suffering for all. The historical example of the superman for Nietzsche is Jesus Christ. But in the Western, non-religious liberal society, where nihilism reigns, and human egoism is the yardstick of all human values, there is no place for God. "God is dead," states the philosopher. In such an environment, all high ideas degenerate into low strivings, the noble movements of the soul are exchanged for petty feelings. Here, morality is reduced to the degree of purely external, mechanical doing, degenerating into hypocrisy and hypocrisy. About his contemporaries, Nietzsche writes that they "sit in their swamp and ... speak from the reeds:" Virtue means to sit still in a swamp. We do not bite anybody and avoid those who want to bite; and in everything we hold opinions imposed on us "." His hopes for the transfiguration of reality, the renewal of humanity and the world, Nietzsche imposes on the superman, who must replace God: "God is dead: now we want the superman to live."
Denouncing the shortcomings of his contemporary moral life, Nietzsche suffered his indignation from people on the Christian principles and beliefs they professed, and in the latter he erroneously saw the whole root of evil. The true, pure face of Christianity was obscured for him by the ugly phenomena of contemporary religious and moral life, and Nietzsche pictured Christianity in the form of "morality of slaves".
F. Nietzsche refers to those thinkers who are too direct and frank to count on universal love. Being the most mysterious and scandalous thinker of the 19th century, Nietzsche remains unraveled to this day, and his multidimensional, contradictory creative heritage does not allow his systematization and unambiguous evaluation.
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