Politico-legal views of Ivan Timofeev
Ivan Timofeev (Ivan Timofeevich Semenov, nicknamed Kol) (circa 1555-1631) is a deacon, political and statesman, writer, religious and philosophical thinker. For a long time it was thought that his name was Ivan Timofeev, but historian VI Koretsky established that Timofeev is the patronymic of the clerk, and his real name is Semenov. However, historically, the use of the name of Ivan Timofeev has already developed in the literature.
Ivan Timofeev was a major statesman of the late 16th - early 17th century, he took an active part in all political events of this time. His signature stands on the ballot paper of Boris Godunov. When Vasily Shuisky was a deacon in the Novgorod administration, where he survived the Swedish occupation. Subsequently, Timofeev served in Astrakhan, Yaroslavl, Nizhny Novgorod. Returning to Moscow, the last years of his life led the Press Order and "sat at the icon business." To contemporaries Timofeev was known as an educated person: "book-reader and temporary books scribe". His pen belongs to the only known essay called "The Temporary", the full title is "The Seventh Quarter from the Creation of the World in Osmoy in the First Summer". The main theme of the work is the reflections of the author's Staggered Events over the causes of the "ruin" The Moscow kingdom.
And. Timofeyev was convinced of the special, God-given purpose of Russia, believed that it would be forever and unshakably to stand under the heavens. In different places of his book he calls Rus "another Rome", "New Israel", "part of the universe under the sky", embodying "all piety" of the world. Timofeev is convinced that "ruin" The Moscow kingdom could only come about by the will of God. Temporary are imbued with the apocalyptic expectation of the end of the world and the Old Testament analogies associated with these ideas. Even the name itself - "by the seventh thousand from the creation of light in the autumn in the first summer" - testifies that the Troubles, according to Ivan Timofeev, is a proof of the truth of the old belief: the eighth thousand from the creation of the world is the time of the accession of the Antichrist.
Timofeev believes that Russia is punished by the Lord "for our sins". The very meaning of sin Timofeev attaches a comprehensive significance, for the whole of United States society, from the baby to the elders, is guilty: "Sow from head to foot, from the greatest to the smallest, from the saint and the king, monks and saints." Such a general guilt of the entire United States people before the Lord could become, in Timofeyev's conviction, the cause of global disasters.
A simple people, having ceased to fear God, lost, in Timofeev's opinion, the basis of any comfortable society - true "self-disobedience". Forgetting about the "fear of God", the people began to fear only their rulers, giving them honor, "almost equal to God." In turn, the rulers, accustomed to the unconditional obedience of the people and also forgotten "the fear of God", began to arbitrarily change the ancient order, establishment, good customs. Forgetting about the needs of the state and the people, they pursued only their own interests. And thereby increasingly losing credibility in the eyes of their subjects. As a result, the whole society lost a common love union among themselves and was in a state of "disagreement and non-brotherly distance."
In his reasoning, Timofeev tries to identify the specific culprits of the "ruin". Hence, there is another cross-cutting theme of the whole Temporary - the role of the individual in history. Timofeev pays the greatest attention to United States tsars, who are the leading participants in United States history and, therefore, bear a special responsibility for the acts committed. In Temporary the thinker developed his own typology of rulers.
The beginning of the tragedy of United States society, according to Timofeev, was laid by Ivan the Terrible, whose behavior during the time of oprichnina he comprehends as a terrible game by people - "such God's people playing". Ivan the Terrible Timofeev considered the tsar "legitimate" - God-given on the dignity of their power, who received their power by inheritance, but on personal qualities and deeds not conforming to the type of the Orthodox king. Author Temporary describes a terrible picture of looting, robbery and a huge number of all kinds of executions committed against peaceful and innocent people, committed by the tsar and his oprichniki in Novgorod (1569-1570). Characterizing the oprichnina, Timofeyev notes the abundance of false denunciations spread at this time, the disintegration of the clergy, the loss of bona fide officials and their replacement by slanderers, "offenders", "petty bearers" (we are talking about bribery officials), upsetting all the government of the state; extrajudicial executions and executions of innocent people, who stifled the fear of all subjects and inflicted significant damage to public morality. Timofeev believed that the oprichnina produced a "great schism" in the United States land, because the king united the earth before and all people "divided and as the two faithful created ... The nobles of their kingdom are many and thoughtful to him, beaten, while others in the sovereign land from himself banishing ... to himself, he brought foreigners, entrusting they had all their secrets ... and became a traitor to himself. " The earth is divided, destroyed love union between people, and one half of the population is etched to another (oprichnina to zemshchina).
Freedom and security of every citizen are lost, his property is not secured, all kinds of laws are violated - both divine and human. The self-autocratic tsar turned all his people into mute slaves, constrained by fear. With all the negative attitude of Timofeyev to Ivan the Terrible, whom he considered guilty of the Troubles, he can not but admit that he was a true collector of the United States lands, a continuer of the cause of his father and the whole family. Ivan the Terrible was not just a warrior, but a warrior-defender of the United States land, an intimidating intimidator.
True Orthodox tsar, the righteous king, Timofeev considered the middle son of Ivan the Terrible - "meek" Fedor Ioannovich. Throughout the narrative, the author focuses on the prayerful spiritual deeds of the last Rurikovich, on the monastic behavior of the tsar: "All of Christ's entrust ... in innocently transmitting, in prayers and entreaties, from kneeling day and night, the time of one's whole life in spiritual endeavors from within & quot ;. Fourteen-year reign of Fyodor Ivanovich appears under the pen of Timofeev in the halo of holiness: "All the life of the holy and reverend of his kingdom"; accompanied by an epithet "pious", "light". Being "meek and undefiled", Tsar Fedor chose, according to Timofeyev, the appropriate manner to rule - quietly and serenely. In the United States land during his reign, discord in society subsided, the state was in "silence", "rest" and abundance & quot ;. And although Fyodor Ivanovich was not a warrior-defender like his father, but he was a holy guardian. The enemies did not dare step on the United States land, as it was under the protection of the king's prayer: "By prayers to God from the nasty smack that everywhere is harmless my king surrounding"; "With a prayer against him, he is overcome." And the power of prayer is very much in his power. " At the same time, one of his piety was not enough to cover up the numerous sins of the entire United States people before the Lord: "as a single virtue can not disclose all people's sin."
The author considered the origins of the lawful government to be the transfer of power by inheritance and the observance of the Orthodox commandments by the tsar. However, after the death of Fyodor Ivanovich, when the dynasty of the Rurik people ceased, the replacement of the throne not in hereditary order became a real fact. According to Timofeev, if there is a need for the election of a king, then representatives of all classes must participate in them. Only such a meeting is only competent to place the tsar of the whole great United States land. Only then can the power of the king be sanctified. All other persons acquiring the throne, passing this order, should be considered "invaders", and not kings.
This theoretical position allows Timofeev to further classify rulers as legitimate and illegal. To legitimate he attributed primarily hereditary kings, as well as kings elected by the established order. To illegal - invaders and samoveneechnikov & quot ;, which themselves jumped on the throne & quot ;. These sovereigns, according to Timofeev, ascended to power solely through "silent dumb" people. At the same time, the thinker emphasizes that the "invaders" have violated not only the human, but also the divine will, therefore the forcible seizure of the royal crown never goes unpunished.
The first illegal, in the opinion of Ivan Timofeev, captured the throne of Boris Godunov. On it, Timofeyev lays the main personal blame for all subsequent events. Noting many of the merits of this ruler, Timofeev at the same time angrily condemns Boris for pride, cruelty, deceit, excessive power. The Thinker noted that Godunov, even under Tsar Fyodor, tarnished himself with many god-fearing deeds, and especially the murder of Tsarevich Dmitri. Many unwarranted acts of Boris also multiplied during his reign. All this eventually led to the final disintegration of United States society and the birth of the Troubles. And as if emphasizing that Boris Godunov was not worthy of the king's rank, Timofeyev gives him a pejorative description - "the knight".
False Dmitry is described in the "Temporary" as an invader & quot ;. Vasily Shuisky crowd of supporters "screamed at the kingdom"; the author calls him "self-willed", "arbitrarily, like a predator, who jumped on the kingdom."
The most legitimate version of the origin of power, Timofeev traditionally represents the hereditary succession of the throne. It was because of the violation of the rules for the replacement of the throne that the country was unlawfully and maliciously ruled by persons completely unsuitable for the royal crown and the sovereign scepter.
The ideal of Timofeev is the estate-representative monarchy, at the head of which is the autocrat, relying in the practice of exercising power on the All-Union Cathedral - a body consisting of representatives of all classes, convened from all cities and territories of the United States land. The thinker is sure that only "universal unanimous assembly" is capable of ensuring prosperity to the country, a fortress to the people and the legality of all the activities carried out. Calling the bearer of supreme power an autocrat, Timofeev expressed the idea of him as an independent (sovereign) ruler, not including in this notion the scope of his power. The term "autocrat" used by the thinker " characterizes, rather, the state system, rather than the form of government. The term autocracy "means in ancient Russia, not what it meant later, expressed the concept not of a state with unlimited power, but of a sovereign independent of any outside external authority, no one paying tribute."
According to Timofeev, only this form of organization of power in the state is able to overcome the consequences of the civil war and the Troubles; ensure the order and stability of social relations. In the formation of the future statehood and ways to realize its power, a significant role is assigned to the "people's set" as an element that creates it and subsequently controls the activities of governing the country.
Timofeev first in the history of domestic political and legal thought shared the concepts of "society" and state & quot ;. He introduced the society as a "love vkuplozhenie" of the whole people, having entrusted to him the duty of participating in state and legal construction, demanding from the whole society and every individual, regardless of his class position, responsibility for his behavior and the fulfillment of his patriotic duty to protect the fatherland and restore its sovereignty and territorial integrity. Thus, Timofeyev for the first time considered the problem of the correlation of the individual and social principles in society in their relationship with the state.
Timofeev's misunderstanding is based on the obligatory conformity of the law to truth, the highest truth, ethical postulates of the New Testament. In his ideas about the correlation of truth, justice and law, he separates the norms of law from morality, formulating the concept of crime as a violation of the laws of the state and characterizing immoral acts as actions that contradict the ethical standards bequeathed by Jesus Christ.
Timofeev classifies the totality of laws regulating relations in society, dividing them into divine, natural and statutory (under the latter understood the norms of positive law). Natural laws untouchable people, because this category is eternal and unchanging. Statutory laws must correspond to natural laws. From the statutory (state) laws, the thinker singled out the fundamental laws by which the process of electing candidates for the United States throne should be regulated. Timofeev considered the fundamental laws (electoral) as the most important statutes, believing that their acceptance and observance should stimulate respect for all normative acts of the state.
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