STATE CIVIL SERVICE POSITIONS OF THE United States
As a result of studying the chapter, the learner must:
• the concept of a civil service post;
• Modern classification of civil service positions;
be able to
• highlight key features of the civil service position;
• To divide the posts of the federal civil service and the civil service of the United States entities into categories;
• skills of comparative analysis of normative legal acts;
• skills in working with official documents: the register of posts and job regulations.
State civil service position: concept, main features and qualification requirements
The main element of the civil service and public administration is the position where the civil servant carries out professional service.
Civil Service Position is the aggregate of administrative duties, rights and responsibilities of a civil servant to support the activities of persons who replace public office, provide services to the public, and exercise the powers of a public authority.
In general, civil service posts are staff units provided for in the structure of the apparatus of a state body in order to ensure the exercise of the powers of a state body or a person who replaces the corresponding public office.
Civil service positions are divided into posts:
- the federal civil service;
- civil service of US subjects.
Federal civil service positions are established by federal law or by a decree of the President of the United States. They are created in the Administration of the President of the United States, the Office of the Government of the United States, the apparatus of the chambers of the Federal Assembly of the United States, the Constitutional Court of the United States, the Supreme Court of the United States, the Supreme Arbitration Court of the United States, the US Attorney General's Office, federal executive bodies supervised by the US President, federal executive bodies , led by the US Government, and others. Other federal government bodies include the US Security Council, the Central US Election Commission, US Chamber of Accounts, Office of the Human Rights Ombudsman in the United States, etc.
The posts of the civil service of the constituent entities of the United States are established by laws or other regulatory legal acts of the United States entities. They are created in the apparatus: the legislative (representative) body of state power of the subject of the United States; governor (head of administration) of the subject of the United States; executive body (government) of state power of a subject of the United States; election commission of the subject of the United States; branch and functional executive bodies of state power of the subject of the United States. The main purpose of establishing the civil service positions of the subject of the United States is to ensure the exercise of the powers of the executive bodies of the United States entity, to accomplish their tasks on the basis of the principles and provisions established by the US Constitution, federal laws, constitutions (statutes) and laws of the US entity.
The key signs of a civil service position are:
1) the position in government bodies - federal and US entities, as well as in other state bodies formed in accordance with the US Constitution - is the primary structural unit of state bodies. It is the first element of the state organization (administration) of the civil service;
2) position with the established range of responsibilities for the execution and enforcement of the powers of this government body. Each state body is authorized to carry out strictly defined tasks and functions. To this end, the state vests its organs with state power; the right to make binding decisions. These powers are embodied in the competence of a specific state body, established in legal acts. A certain part of the competence of the state body (or the person replacing the public office) is included in the civil service position;
3) position with the established monetary value of the law, which includes the official salary and allowances to it;4) position with a certain responsibility for the violation of due actions in the service (within the scope of duties and rights in office), as well as for failure to achieve the goal through the fault of the civil servant.
The civil service position contains the main function performed by a civil servant. The title of such a post is a short and precise wording, it reflects its individual character and generality in the system of functions of the state body. For example, the post of assistant (adviser) of the federal minister reflects the following points: it is the post of a federal civil servant; its purpose is to ensure the activities of a member of the Government of the United States; level - the main (highest) position of the civil service; is replaced in the order of destination.
In order to ensure the high professional level of civil servants and the uniformity of requirements for civil service positions, qualification requirements are standardized in accordance with the categories and groups of posts.
In the number of qualification requirements for civil service positions of categories "managers", "assistants (advisers)", "experts" all groups of civil service positions, as well as the categories "providing specialists" the main and leading groups of civil service positions include the presence of higher professional education.
In the category of qualification requirements for civil service posts, the categories "providing specialists" senior and younger groups of civil service positions includes the presence of secondary vocational education corresponding to the direction of activity.
Among the most important qualification requirements for civil service positions, the law includes the length of service in the state or the work experience in the specialty, which serves as an indicator of professional and life experience, the level of a person's qualifications.
Qualification requirements for the length of civil service (civil service of other kinds) or length of experience (experience) in the specialty for federal civil servants are established by a decree of the US President, for civil servants of the subject of the United States - the law of a US subject.
Qualification requirements for professional knowledge and skills necessary for the performance of official duties are established by the normative legal act of the state body, taking into account its tasks and functions and are included in the job regulations.
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