Reforms of Ivan IV, Judicial and Lip Reforms., Zemskaya...

Reforms of Ivan IV

Judicial and Lip Reform.

Among the reforms of the 50's. XVI century. on the first place is the reform of the court. Even during the childhood of Ivan IV, a very important lip reform was initiated (from the word "lip" - the county), caused by complaints about a lack of vigorous struggle against robbery from the governors-feeders, who were more interested in obtaining judicial revenues than in stopping the crimes. For the catching of "robbers", by which the insurgent peasants were also understood, a special post of the foreman was created. Inhabitants of the district - service landowners (boyars, boyar children, noblemen), clergymen, black and palace peasants (represented by their Sotskaya) - had to gather and choose a labial elder from local nobles and boyar children. To assist the labial elder, the peasants chose labialists ("kiss the cross" - swear). The clerk's office had a chancery-a labial hut; Office work was conducted by an elected labial clerk. The labial headmen had to catch robbers, investigate and execute the guilty. The governors no longer interfered in the robbery and only received the due court fees. This was the first step towards replacing the courts of the federation with a state court. The first known to us letters of letters were issued in 1539. The letters of mouth, in addition to providing the possibility of a more resolute struggle against robbery, removed from this business the boyars and gave the nobility huge power in the county.

In 1549, a decree was issued, further limiting the court of feeders and emphasizing the government's noble policy. According to this decree, all the boyar children with their lands were removed from the jurisdiction of the viceroy court and subordinated to the court of the central judicial institutions; At the same time, the boyar children were given a trial of their peasants, except for especially important criminal cases. The decree of 1549, on the one hand, protected the small landowners from the arbitrariness of the feeders, and on the other, secured the judicial power over the population of estates.

Finally, the demand of I. S. Peresvetov for the revision of the Sudebnik of 1497 was finally fulfilled. In June 1550 a new so-called "Tsar's Lawyer" was published, replacing the insufficiently complete Code of Law of Ivan III. The new Code of Law was significantly expanded: it consisted of 100 articles instead of the previous 68. It paid much attention to the issue of punishment for bribery and other abuses in the judiciary, which received a lot of complaints during the early childhood of Ivan IV. Then a number of articles spoke about the responsibility of the governors and the control of their court by the representatives of the population. Representatives of the local population - the dvorian, the elders and the taverners - were to be present at the trial. The procedure for filing complaints against the governors was established. Confirmation of the transfer of robbery cases under the supervision of labial elders. Thus, in Sudebnik, a great step was taken to further limit the arbitrariness of the fed-dogs and to organize the state court.

Zemskaya Reform.

Simultaneously with Sudebnik the form of the model charter was developed. Statutory certificates were issued from the end of the XV century. separate regions and population groups. They listed the duties of the population in favor of the governors and the court fees for crimes, the size of both was established. On the basis of private letters, a common type of a single charter was developed. The charter on the one hand was a concession to the wealthy strata of the black-peasant peasantry and the population of the townspeople and was supposed to calm the discontent caused by the management of the feeders, and on the other, it was a step towards the centralization of finance.

The lip reform, Decree 1549, the articles of the Code of Law on the Provincial Court, the charter of 1550 prepared a complete abolition of the "feeding", carried out in 1555. The court and the collection of taxes were transferred to the hands of elective "favorite heads" or elders, who were chosen by the people of the townspeople and black peasants; at the starost there were elective tselovalniki, or best people & quot ;, otherwise zemsky judges, and also elective zemsky clerk. The court of district judges was subject only to the tax "black" population, since by Decree of 1549, the landowners served in the Moscow orders, and the peasants who lived in the feudal possessions were subject to the judgment of the owners of the land. Robbery cases remained under the jurisdiction of the labial elders and the Robber order. The zemstvo authorities were also assigned the layout and collection of taxes with responsibility for their shortage; they also disposed of the execution of natural duties. Revenues received so far by the feeders were fixed for each area in the form of a certain amount, which, under the name of "fed-up payback" was transmitted by the zemstvo authorities directly to the tsarist treasury. To collect and receive a fed-up pile in the center, special "feeding giants" were singled out.

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