Soviet State and Law in the developed socialism...


As a result of studying the chapter, the student must:

- know the composition, structure and competence of central and local government authorities; structure and content of the main regulatory legal acts;

- be able to use the basic categories and concepts of theoretical and historical sciences; to analyze the content of normative legal acts, revealing new norms in comparison with the previous legislation;

- own skills of operating the basic concepts necessary for the study of socialist states.

The considered period of Soviet history can be characterized as the period of achieving the greatest economic and military-political might of the Soviet state. The Soviet Union has made serious progress in the economic sphere. The production of industrial and agricultural products steadily increased, and the well-being of Soviet citizens grew. High-tech industries, the manufacturing industry and the Soviet spider have developed rapidly. In peacetime, the USSR contained the world's largest armed forces: the number of Soviet armed formations of various purposes (armed forces, border troops, internal troops, etc.) reached 5 million people. In the USSR, the production of the newest weapons was constantly being expanded, which, in some cases, were inferior in quality and even superior to the best foreign models.

However, in the 1970s. the slowdown in economic growth began, which was due to two main reasons: the USSR's achievement of a certain high level of economic development, which is objectively

led to a similar process, and a relatively low efficiency of the socialist mode of management with a weak interest of the working people in the results of labor, a rigid and petty central planning system, a lack of private initiative, a backlog from the West in the field of high technology. In addition, more than a significant part of the funds was spent on maintaining defensive capabilities: the USSR was deeply entangled in the arms race, not having enough money to do so, redistributing them from the production of consumer goods. Soviet industry produced some types of means of production in clearly overstated volumes. It should be noted that the military expenditures of the USSR could be seriously curtailed without any adverse consequences for the effectiveness of the country's defense, but the Soviet party-state leadership did not dare to undertake serious reforms, and many leaders did not understand the need for serious modernization of the country. Separate attempts in the second half of the 1960s and the first half of the 1980s to improve the management of the national economy, to provide greater economic freedom to enterprises and greater interest in the results of labor of workers were half measures, and in the first case were quickly curtailed.

The self-consciousness of the Soviet man also changed. A higher standard of living, confidence in the future, trends of the West and the very nature of man have led to an increase in democratic sentiment among the population. However, Soviet ideology changed little; the obvious was the need to provide greater economic and political freedom to the people, who increasingly professed communist values.

Opposition to the West cost the USSR dearly. Western states, the United States in every possible way tried to undermine the power of the Soviet state. So, in the 1980s. The US managed to agree with the Arab countries on increasing oil production and reducing its price, which hurt the economy of the USSR, which bought food and consumer goods for money received from the sale of oil. The introduction of energy-saving technologies in Western countries also did not contribute to the stability of energy prices.

Thus, the USSR of the period under consideration was a powerful and developed state, which nevertheless had serious problems of political, economic and ethnic development. The solution of many of these problems became extremely difficult task, and therefore the fate of the state depended on the new coming reforms, wisdom and efficiency of the Soviet leadership.

In the international arena the USSR firmly took the place of the leading world power, second only to the United States. The USSR's relations with the countries of the West remained tense. They were no less difficult with the People's Republic of China. The entry of Soviet troops into Afghanistan led to an aggravation of relations between the USSR and the Islamic world, distracting the latter from the United States and Israel, which, together with other Western countries, actively used the difficulties of the USSR in Afghanistan for their own purposes. In the course of international assistance to the Afghan people in 1979-1989, our country lost 15,051 killed, 53,753 wounded, 417 missing.

Periodically, problems arose within the socialist camp. By this time, Eastern Europe managed to stabilize the situation and eliminate the consequences of the Hungarian events of 1956. In Hungary, significant economic liberalization was made in the sphere of economic policy, which improved the living conditions in the country. Other socialist countries also became more independent in domestic and foreign policy. At the same time, the Soviet leadership clearly set the framework for which this policy should not have been issued. When the leadership of Czechoslovakia, led by A. Dubcek, opened wide the gates to private enterprise and tried to weaken dependence on the USSR by drawing closer to Western countries, in the summer of 1968 Soviet, German, Bulgarian and Polish troops were introduced to Prague. Counterrevolution was suppressed, L. Liberty became the new leader of the country. In modern historiography, these events began to be called the "Prague Spring". However, by the beginning of the 80's. XX century. The USSR often did not have the military and economic capabilities to solve such problems, its leadership was well aware of this, having refused, for example, the military operation of 1981-1982. in Poland, where anti-government demonstrations of the population took place.

Recognized the Soviet leadership and the need to limit the costs of armaments, reduce the level of tension with the countries of the West, the United States. With the United States during this period, the USSR signed a number of treaties on the limitation of strategic weapons (SALT). In 1972, the Treaty on the Limitation of Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems (START I) was signed, and in 1979 - the Treaty on the Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms (SALT-2). The latter limited the number of carriers of nuclear weapons from the parties. An important stage for the relaxation of international tension was the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) and the adoption of the Final Act of the CSCE.

The Soviet Union joined the International Covenant on Economic and Social Rights and the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1966. It should be noted that the United States and some Western countries shied away from participating in the above covenants, which establish fundamental rights man and citizen. However, unfortunately, the USSR did not fully comply with the norms of these pacts.

A dissident movement arose in the USSR, many people demanded changes and the formation of a genuine system of democratic institutions. This was reflected in the creation of organizations on the territory of the Soviet Union, such as the Initiative Group for the Protection of Human Rights in the USSR, the Moscow Helsinki Group, the Free Trade Union of Workers, the Trust for Confidence between the USSR and the USA, etc.

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