State Civil Service of the United States
As noted earlier, the civil service (hereinafter referred to as the civil service) is a kind of civil service, which is the professional work of citizens at the posts of the civil service to ensure the exercise of the powers of federal state bodies, state bodies of the United States entities, Federation, and persons substituting public offices for US subjects (Article 5 of Federal Law No. 58-FZ).
In contrast to military and law enforcement service, the purpose of the civil service is to ensure the authority of federal state bodies, persons replacing the state posts of the United States, and ensuring the authority of the United States entity, as well as the powers of state bodies of the United States entity and persons substituting posts for US subjects.
The legal, organizational and financial-economic bases of the civil service of the United States are established by Federal Law No. 79-FZ.
Article 4 of this Law establishes the following principles of civil service :
1) the priority of human and citizen rights and freedoms;
2) the unity of the legal and organizational foundations of the federal civil service and civil service of the constituent entities of the United States;
3) equal access of citizens to the civil service;
4) professionalism and competence of civil servants;
5) stability of the civil service;
6) availability of information about the civil service;
7) interaction with public associations and citizens;
8) the protection of civil servants from undue interference in their professional service.
Civil service of the United States is interrelated with other types of public service of the United States , and also with the municipal service .
In accordance with Art. 6 of the Federal Law No. 79-FZ the relationship of the civil service and the public service of the United States of other kinds is provided on the basis of the unity of the public service system of the United States and the principles of its construction and functioning, and also by:
- correlations of the basic conditions and the size of remuneration of labor, the basic state social guarantees;
- the establishment of restrictions and obligations when passing the public service of the United States of various kinds;
- accounting for the length of service of the state service of the United States of other types when calculating the length of civil service;
- correlations of the main conditions of state pension provision for citizens who passed the state service of the United States.
The Civil Service of the United States is divided into two levels - the federal civil service and civil service of the US subjects.
Federal Civil Service - professional civil service activities of citizens in the positions of the federal civil service to ensure the exercise of the powers of federal state bodies and persons who replace public positions of the United States.
Among the features of the federal civil service can be identified as follows:
Firstly, it has not a subordination, but a coordination character. Civil services of all three branches of the federal government are not subordinated, but interact on the principles of conventionalism (agreements, contracts);
Secondly, this system is regulated by regulatory legal acts. The main and decisive form of coordination in the system of the federal civil service is management by means of various normative legal acts - federal laws, decrees of the US President, decisions of the US Government and other normative legal acts;
Third, the absolute majority of the posts of the federal civil service are occupied by women.
From the organizational side, the federal civil service acts as an administrative administrative system that unites the apparatuses of the three branches of the federal government. It includes civil services of the two chambers of the Federal Assembly of the United States, The US President, the US Government, federal ministries, federal services and federal agencies, as well as three federal courts - the US Constitutional Court, the US Supreme Court, the US Supreme Arbitration Court and the US Attorney General's Office. In addition, it also includes the civil service of other federal state bodies, which include the apparatus of the US Central Election Commission, the US Chamber of Accounts and US government financial authorities. Together, these civil services form the federal administrative authority, which is a necessary component of the federal government.
In the structure of modern public administration, an important place is occupied by the system of state administration of US subjects, and in particular by their state civil service. As noted earlier, civil service of a constituent entity of the United States is the professional performance of citizens in the posts of the civil service of the United States entity in ensuring the fulfillment of the powers of the United States entity, as well as the powers of the state bodies of the United States entity and persons who replace the public positions of the US entity. VD Citizens among the features of the civil service of the US subjects distinguish the following:
1) has a transitional character, its structure has not yet formed and has a number of levels, forms and elements that should gradually be transformed or disappear altogether;
2) is an almost independent section of government, ill-connected with federal and municipal services;
3) At present, in the main features, begins to gradually repeat the structure of the federal civil service.
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