State communications of the Commune of Paris with the province...

6. State communications of the Commune of Paris with the province

The movement in the provinces, which favored the strengthening of the Commune, went on two lines. On the one hand, in large centers - Lyons, Marseilles, Toulouse, Limoges, Narbonne, Dijon, Lille, Saint-Etienne, Rouen - communes arose, and in some cities - twice; At the secondary emergence of the Commune in Marseilles, it eliminated the prefecture of the department and created its commission instead.

On the other hand, the commune-friendly movement was supported by the republican defense and vigilance committees created simultaneously with the Central Republican Committee in Paris in almost all the cities of France and a significant part of its municipalities. Seeing this, the government of Thiers promptly appointed (on April 30) the re-election of all municipalities, urban and rural, resulting in 700 out of 700,000 (in round figures) members of the municipal councils who were elected to 35,000 communities, 200 were legitimists, 600 Orleanists, 700 Bonapartists, all the rest - Republicans or Communists. The newly elected municipalities wanted to convene a congress in Bordeaux in order to peacefully resolve the struggle between the two governments in France, but the Thiers government banned it and led the fight against new municipalities.

7. Civil and criminal legislation of the Commune

Just as in the revolutionary struggle of the working class and other labor groups that began in September 1870, the embryos of the state power of the socialist state began to take shape, so elements of socialist sense of justice and lawmaking related to the trends of new socialist social relations began to form in this struggle.

The Central Committee of the National Guard that came into power and then the Council of the Commune in their first decrees twice sanctioned the most persevering pressing demands of the working people. During the short 9 weeks of power, the Commune could not deploy the system of socialist legislation and limited itself to decrees reflecting the pressing tasks of the struggle.

In the civil law area, the most significant in its socialist tendencies was the April 16 decree on industrial enterprises abandoned by the masters.

Another Central Committee of the National Guard, after becoming in power, announced the postponement of rent, debt payments, the return of the necessary household things, linen and clothes pledged at the pawnshop without redemption. The Council of the Commune, in decrees detailed in relation to the property situation of the interested parties, began to implement these measures. On April 25, the Council of the Commune issued a decree on the requisition of vacant apartments, which district municipalities were to be transferred primarily to those affected by the military action.

In the field of labor law, it is necessary to note, first of all, the charter of the Louvre workshops for repair and repair of weapons approved by the Commune, which introduced working control in production, apparently extended to all industrial enterprises of military production. Then - the resolution of the Commune on the authority of the Labor and Exchange Commission to review all contracts of the Commune on deliveries and contracts so that they first of all consist of workers, cooperative associations, so that conditions and prices are established by special commissions and negotiated a minimum wage.

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The decree of April 4 set the highest salary at 6,000 francs a year (which no one received). The deputies of the Council of the Commune had a rate of 15 francs a day. Another decree prohibited fines and deductions from wages.

Night work in bakeries was banned. Private intermediary offices for the hiring of labor were closed, and labor exchanges were then organized in the district mayor's offices.

Under the criminal law were issued decrees on bringing to justice the members of the Versailles government with the seizure and sequestration of their property, on bringing to trial all accomplices of the Versailles government and about the hostages.

As for ordinary criminality, then, as noted by later official sources, during the period of the Commune it was below the usual level.

Shipbuilding and legal proceedings underwent major changes in a number of decrees and related measures of the commissions of justice. As a result, a new system of civil courts was formed, consisting of world courts, the chamber of civil court and the accusatory jury for Versailles.

The judges of the peace examined civil and criminal cases; These judges were to be elected by universal suffrage, but they were temporarily appointed by the Executive Commission and the Committee of Public Salvation from those former judges who pledged to "apply the new principles introduced into legislation by the March 18 revolution."

The Chamber of Civil Court was established by the May 12 decree of the Commune "for dealing with urgent cases" in the simplified procedure, which was thereby accelerated and cheaper for interested working people.

The decision on the organization of the accusatory jury was taken on April 5 by the Council of the Commune in response to the atrocities of the Versailles; Jury Regulations was adopted only on April 22, the jury was elected by the Council of the Commune on May 6, and the jury began operating only on May 20, ie, a month and a half after the decision to create this body to fight the counter-revolution, which had not been idle for a month and a half; at the same time Jury Regulations a number of liberal guarantees for the accused; all this weakened judicial repression against the enemies of the Commune.

The great achievement of the Statute of the accusatory jury was the section on juries, which broke down the previous restrictions and qualifications for jury elections, in particular age declined from 30 to 17 years - both for admission to the National Guard, which elected juries, not only for the accusatory jury, but in all cases of jury participation in court.

Clause III of the Statute on the jury trial reads: "The functions of a public prosecutor are performed by the public prosecutor of the Commune and his four deputies, directly elected by the Paris Commune". Thus, the Public Prosecutor's Office of the Commune was created, which in its activities far exceeded the functions of the judicial charge, closely connected with the work of the Public Security Commission and the Commission of Justice, and then the Committee for Public Salvation.

The Paris Commune went down in history as a prototype of Soviet power. Her real secret was this: she was essentially a working-class government. " With all the mistakes and shortcomings of the Commune it was the dictatorship of the proletarian majority, the dictatorship of the masses directed against the bourgeoisie, against the minority. " "The people, as" the only ruler "," not the dictatorship of one man, but the whole people "; - this is what the Paris Commune was " , - Stalin said, citing the words of the Paris Commune participants.

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