Statehood in Azerbaijan.
In the XIV-XIX centuries. the development of the social system in Azerbaijan depended to a great extent on external invasions, although in different regions the influence of the occupiers affected differently. It is characteristic that the development of feudalism here did not eliminate the clan relations that existed until then.
Under the influence of the eastern despotism, state ownership of land developed in Azerbaijan, on the basis of which the entire feudal hierarchy was built. The feudal lords were divided into four groups: the first was the aristocratic secular elite, the second included the top of the Shiite clergy, the third - the top of the bureaucracy, the fourth - the other feudal lords. The peasants were also divided into groups. One of them was the peasant top, engaged in trade and attracted to the position of small administrators. The second group included free peasants - tenants, in the third - the bulk of the peasants, deprived of the right to transfer and bearing up to 40 duties in favor of the feudal lord.
Slaves remained in Azerbaijan, however, slavery was predominantly patriarchal.
Citizens in Azerbaijan did not have city liberties, including self-government.
The Azerbaijani khanates in the period under review were in vassalage dependence on Persia, or Turia. At the head of each khanate was a khan or pasha. According to the principles typical for Muslim states, there was no authority at the center or in the localities that limited the supreme power. The Khanate was divided into mahals led by races, whose position was hereditary. The villages were ruled by so-called yuzbashi & quot ;, which most often performed police functions.
Khan had his own army, staffed by representatives of various social strata, there was also a special social layer of Maafi, from which the police were formed.
As in all Muslim states, traditional sources of Sharia acted in Azerbaijan. In addition, local rulers issued their own laws - firmas. The customary law was also preserved. The Muslim religion aspired to level ethnic differences, to establish uniform standards for all the peoples belonging to the state.
The law of obligations governed the exchange, loan, etc. Criminal law provided for responsibility for crimes against the state, religion, personality, etc. Judicial functions were mainly performed by clergy. The trial was prosecutorial, there was no preliminary investigation, civil and criminal cases were examined according to the same rules. The evidence was the oath, testimony of witnesses, recognition of the party.
Statehood in Armenia.
The features of the pre-Mongol period are largely preserved in the social structure of Armenia. At the same time, new conquerors brought their own orders. The largest landowners were khans and pashas. The enslaved peasants (shinakans) were under the double yoke of their own and foreign feudal lords. On the land relations to a certain extent reflected the Muslim order. Conquerors defeated mostly local secular feudal lords, but church Christian feudal lords managed to survive.
In the absence of its own state, it is difficult to talk about Armenian national state institutions. After the seizure of the territory of Armenia by Persia and Turkey at the head of separate administrative units (khanates and pashalyk) stood khans and pasha. These units, for their part, were divided into smaller ones - the Magals, the Sanjaks.
With khans, there were sofas that combined officials with different functions. The lower post of the Armenian melik, who also served as a judge, remained in place.
If the Persian part of Armenia was divided into khanates, the Turkish part - pa-paulik, including sanjaks,
whose chiefs were appointed by the Pasha. Pasha was necessarily a Muslim. The system of officials existing in the former Armenia was abolished.Very often the khans and pashas in Armenia fought for the expansion of their internal and external independence, which led to a bloody fratricidal war between Armenians.
In conditions of foreign occupation, legislative activity in Armenia could not develop. However, the development of canon law, which regulated a certain sphere of secular relations, continued. The application of Armenian customary law continued. The invaders brought with them the Shariah, which acted alongside Christian legal norms.
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