THE ELECTION SYSTEM OF SWEDEN

The Kingdom of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government. The top of state is the King (or Queen) who have only ceremonial duties and functions, but no professional prerogative. Executive authority is exercised by the federal government, which comprises the best minister and the case of ministers, and kept accountable to parliament. The prime minister is approved by the parliament. The Parliament (Riksdag) is a unicameral body made up of 349 deputies, elected for four-year terms. Of the 349 parliamentary mandates, 310 are elected using an open-list proportional representation system within 29 multi-member electoral constituencies. For being awarded a

'permanent' seats, a political get together must either obtain 4 per cent of the votes cast nationwide or 12 per cent of the votes cast in one constituency. Votes are cast for open up party lists where voters may point out a preference for individual prospects.

Elections in the Kingdom of Sweden are held every four years, and determine the makeup of the legislative body on the three degrees of administrative section in the country. At the best level, these elections determine the allocation of seating in the Riksdag, the countrywide legislative body of Sweden. Elections to the 20county councils (landsting) and 290 municipal assemblies (kommunfullmktige) are kept concurrently with the legislative elections on the 3rd Sunday of Sept, and use roughly the same electoral system.

The Riksdag:

The Riksdag is the national legislative set up of Sweden. It performs the standard functions of a parliament in a parliamentary democracy. It enacts laws, amends the constitution and appoints a authorities. Generally in most parliamentary democracies, the brain of state commissions a politician to form a government. Under the new Device of Government enacted in 1974, that task was taken off the Monarch of Sweden and given to the Presenter of the Riksdag. To make changes to the Constitution under the new Tool of Federal, amendments must be approved double by Parliament, in two successive electoral durations with a normal general election performed in between.

Members of the Riksdag are elected by way of a two-tier proportional representation (PR) system. A complete of 310 chairs are filled up in twenty-nine multi-member electoral constituencies. Long lasting constituency seats, which can be allocated on the list of constituencies compared to how big is their electorates, are sent out in line with the modified odd-number or altered Sainte-Lagu approach to PR. Voters may cast a ballot for a constituency get together list, or for a specific candidate. Riksdag car seats are apportioned on a nationwide basis among politics parties in the same manner as constituency car seats, namely by the revised Sainte-Lagu method. In order to take part in the syndication of Riksdag chairs, a celebration must obtain at least four percent of all valid votes cast. However, a party that receives at least twelve percent of all valid votes in a constituency is eligible for be a part of the distribution of that constituency's permanent seating.

If the amount of seats given to a party on a countrywide basis is smaller than its final number of constituency chairs, the constituency seats obtained by the party in question are subtracted from the full total volume of Riksdag seats, and a countrywide distribution of the rest of the seats is completed one of the other qualifying functions. This guideline also applies to parties that have obtained constituency chairs but polled less than four percent of the nationwide vote. Riksdag mandates triumphed in by a party at the multi-member constituency level are then subtracted from the total number of car seats assigned to that get together, and the remaining mandates are packed from thirty-nine adjustment chairs. These mandates are subsequently allocated at the constituency level based on the major Sainte-Lagu quotients which have not been used to allocate long term seats, or the full total amount of votes polled by the qualifying get together in constituencies where it hasn't obtained any everlasting seats.

The Region Council:

A County Council, or Landsting, is an elected assemblage of a State in Sweden. The State Council is a political entity, elected by the county electorate and typically its main responsibilities rest within the general population health health care system. In each region there is also a Region Administrative Table which can be an administrative entity appointed by the Government. Constitutionally the County Councils exercise a amount of municipal self federal provided for in theConstitution of Sweden. This will not constitute any degree of federalism, which is steady with Sweden's position as a unitary point out. In Swedish terminology the Region Council is considered to be a "Provincial Municipality" or Landstingskommun.

In each State there's also several smaller entities for the local federal and administration that constitute municipal personal government, which are independent of the County Councils. It really is called a "Primary Municipality" or Primrkommun, and more plainly "Municipality" or Kommun. The island of Gotland is a particular case in that it creates up one full state but at the same time only one municipality. As Gotland doesn't have another entity for a County Council, the Municipality of Gotland also grips the County Council tasks.

The Municipal Set up:

A municipal set up is the decision-making body regulating each one of the 290 municipalities of Sweden. Though the Swedish Local Government Act uses the word "municipal assembly" in the English translation of the Take action, "municipal council" and even "city council" are being used as well, even in recognized contexts in British by many of Sweden's major municipalities. The amount of people in each set up can range from 31 to 101, with respect to the people of the municipality involved. Customers of the assemblies are chosen to provide for four-year conditions through elections using a party-list proportional representation system. These municipal elections are organised on the 3rd Sunday of Sept, the same day as Swedish parliamentary elections.

II - Right of Equivalent Suffrage

The governing laws:

The constitution, the 2005 Elections Take action (2005:837) and the Election Ordinance will be the primary legal tools regulating the carry out of parliamentary elections. The constitution is composed of four fundamental regulations: (1) the 1974 Device of Government that provides for the essential features of the system of federal, (2) the 1810 Action of Succession that delivers the guidelines on succession to the throne, (3) the 1949 Flexibility of the Press Work, and (4) the 1991 Fundamental Legislations on Independence of

Expression The constitution outlines general principles of equivalent and universal suffrage, free, secret and direct elections of the Parliament, and the electoral system.

The 2005 Elections Function sets out thorough provisions for elections. It specifies the department of tasks between the local, regional and central election specialists, polling station staff and the Election Review Mother board. The Elections Function also contains procedures associated with electoral districts and boundary delimitation, design and development of ballot documents, strategies for voting, vote keeping track of and the allocation of chairs, and appeals against election results.

The Ordinance with Instructions for the Election Expert regulates the Election Specialist, which has central administrative specialist for elections. The Ordinance provides details involving decision-making methods and the organizational structure of the Authority.

Requirements to be always a voter:

To vote in a Swedish parliamentary election, one must be

a Swedish resident,

at least 18 years on election day,

and have sooner or later been a recorded resident of Sweden (thus excluding foreign-born Swedes who have never resided in Sweden)

To vote in Swedish local elections (for the region councils and municipal assemblies), one must

be a recorded resident of the region or municipality involved and be at least 18 years on election day

fall into one of the next groups

Swedish citizens

Citizens of Iceland, Norway, or any country in the Western Union

Citizens of any other country who've long term residency in Sweden and also have resided in Sweden for three consecutive years

Requirements to be always a candidate:

The requirements to be a prospect in the Sweden elections are

nomination by the registered political get together

the names of the titular and substitute member must be posted together

The eligibility requirements of an applicant in the Sweden elections are

qualified electors

age: at least 18 years old on election day

Swedish citizenship (including naturalized citizens)

citizens overseas meet the criteria under certain conditions (if they're on the special electoral move brought up under voter requirements)

ineligibilities: holders of temporary entry allows, undocumented immigrants

The types of voting:

The types of voting in Sweden differs because unlike in many countries where voters selected from a list of candidates or functions, each get together in Sweden has separate ballot documents. The ballot documents must be equivalent in proportions and material, and have different colors with regards to the kind of election: yellow for Riksdag elections, blue for state council elections and white for municipal elections and elections to the Western european Parliament.

Swedish voters can choose between three different types of ballot papers. The party ballot paperhas basically the name of any political party branded on leading and is also blank on the trunk. This ballot is used when a voter wishes to vote for a particular party, but does not desire to give desire to a specific prospect. The name ballot newspaper has a party name followed by a list of applicants (which can keep on the other area). A voter making use of this ballot can pick (but is not needed) to cast an individual vote by coming into a make next to a specific prospect, in addition to voting for their political party. Additionally, a voter may take a blank ballot newspaper and write a celebration name on it

Voting occurs at vote reception items. Voters shall vote in the first instance at their polling channels on the election day. They are able to also prior or through the election day vote at voting places create by the municipalities or international missions. Voters could also in certain conditions vote by messenger or notice. The Central Election Specialist shall determine, pursuing consultation with the Government Office buildings (Ministry for Overseas Affairs), the Swedish overseas missions at which there will be voting places.

III - Reception and keeping track of of votes:

Reception of votes:

For the vote reception at vote reception issues there shall be a suitable variety of screened places (voting booths) at a vote reception point where the voters can vote without being observed. As well as the general procedures on voting and reception of votes that are contained in Chapters 7 and 8 the provisions of this chapter apply for vote reception at polling stations. If the provisions of this chapter deviate from those in Chapters 7 and 8, the procedures of this section shall apply instead.

In addition to the general provisions on voting and reception of votes contained in Chapters 7 and 8, the procedures of this chapter shall make an application for vote reception at voting places. If the provisions of the section deviate from those in Chapters 7 and 8, the provisions of this chapter shall apply instead.

Counting of Votes:

Immediately after vote reception at the polling stop is concluded and everything vote envelopes that will be placed in the ballot box have been deposited in it, the voting clerks shall remove the envelopes and count number the votes. The keeping track of of votes is open public and will be put in place without interruption. The result of the counting of votes is primary.

On the Thursday following a election day, the election committee shall meet to examine and rely the votes which have not been counted at the polling channels. This conference is public. The consequence of the committee's keeping track of of votes is primary. At the conference the committee shall examine

1. screen envelopes and cover envelopes for postal votes that up to and including the election day were received by the committee and maintained there,

2. window envelopes and cover envelopes for postal votes that the voting clerks have went back to the committee in accordance with Chapter 9, Section 13,

3. windows envelopes and cover envelopes for postal votes that were received by the committee before the ballot boxes described in Section 2 have been emptied, and

4. windows envelopes and cover envelopes for postal votes that the voting clerks in accordance with Chapter 9, Section 12 have inserted into special addresses. The exam shall in appropriate respects be conducted in the same way as corresponding to Chapter 9, Portions 9-12.

After which, The region administrative table shall conduct the final keeping track of of votes. The proceedings will be public and shall be conducted immediately. If an election to the Riksdag has been held at the same time as another election, the election to the Riksdag will be counted first.

The county administrative mother board shall at the proceedings consider if the ballot papers are valid according to Parts 6 and 7 and whether any name on a ballot paper should be considered to be non-existent according to Section 8 and also make the decisions required by this review. The state administrative table shall make the decisions that are necessary consequently of the information contained in the records described in Section 9, Section 16.

Election Specialists:

The Swedish Election Power:

The Swedish Election Expert, or Valmyndigheten, is a Authorities agency responsible for organizing national elections and referendums in Sweden. The company began its functions on 1 July 2001 when it overran the duties from the Swedish Country wide Tax Mother board. Local and local elections will be the responsibility of the individual municipalities and state councils, however these elections always happen concurrently with the countrywide elections for the Parliament of Sweden. As the central administrative specialist for elections, the Election Power comes with an instrumental role in every open public elections in Sweden. Additionally it is the central administrative power. The Authority is among other activities accountable for compiling the electoral registers and the printing of voting cards.

The State Administrative Plank:

A Region Administrative Board (Swedish: Lnsstyrelse) is a Federal government appointed board of a Region in Sweden. It is led by a Governor or Landsh¶vding appointed for a term of six years and the set of succession, generally, stretches back again to 1634 when the counties were created. The main responsibility of the State Administrative Board is to coordinate the development of the county in line with goals set in nation-wide politics. In each county addititionally there is a Region Council which really is a policy-making assemblage elected by the residents of the region. It is also the regional election specialist. The state administrative board decides on electoral area boundaries and is responsible for the ultimate counting of the votes in every elections.

The Election Committee:

The Election Committee (valnmnden) is the local election specialist in Stockholm. The Committee is responsible for the practical execution of elections which includes to provide and man the polling stations, run the primary keeping track of of the votes also to article the results.

Appeal:

Decisions or other options according to this Work may be appealed against only to the scope as provided in this section. A conclusion by an election committee not to admit an impediment for receiving an task as voting clerk may be appealed against to the region administrative board. Enough time for appeals will be counted from your day the decision was made. Decisions of the state administrative table under this section may well not be appealed against. An appeal must be published to the expert that has issued your choice appealed against (deciding authority).

PART II - REVIEW AND EXAMINATION OF THE MAY 2010 AUTOMATED ELECTION SYSTEM IN THE PHILIPPINES

Observation and Review:

Is the Philippines ready for programmed election? Are we ready for something new? First, let us discuss advantages and down sides that will emerge if our country engages with an robotic election. Smartmatic (also known as Smartmatic Corp. or Smartmatic International) is a multinational company founded in 2000 that specializes in the look and deployment of sophisticated purpose-specific technology solutions. It is arranged around three business areas: Electronic voting systems, designed security systems, and biometric systems for folks registration and authentication for federal applications. Smartmatic offers the Smartmatic Automated Election System (SAES), a unified voting, scrutiny, tabulation, allocation and consequence broadcast solution -suitable for any kind of election- which was officially released in 2003. In addition to the many benefits of the SAES system, its most spectacular advantage lies in the warranty of total transparency in any given electoral or referendum process. SAES offers the possibility to check and audit results through different means, guaranteeing zero numerical inconsistencies between all levels covered by every single vote, from real casting to last scrutiny. Smartmatic provides us other benefits and advantages if we will package with automation of election.

It has been a long time since the Filipinos gave their self-assurance and trust to the election system of the united states. This is true because in the last elections, there have been so many of conditions that tainted our election system's integrity, one which is the so called "dagdag bawas". Then here comes a legislations that was enacted to increase the election system of our country. It had been said to be implemented before the recent 2010 elections, but credited to some problems that were came across, it expanded its implementation to the year 2010. This new regulation and the new system were put in place to help dwelling address the normal problems of your election system.

"The May 10 election was the first ever before nationwide automated election in the annals of the Philippines. The election was generally viewed as a potential watershed in the Philippines' democratic loan consolidation, in light of a history of elections marred by electoral fraudulence and irregularities. "

Also as worded in the post by Jimenez, Agnes Embile "This returning May 2010, every Filipino will have their flavour of the first ever before automated election within the Philippines. That is a very significant milestone inside our country's background given those long many years of boring manual election process that not only provides burden to our teachers and volunteers, but has also kept doubtful and doubtful election results. Through the PCOS (Precinct Count number Optical Check out System) machine, an automated keeping track of of votes will take place. This won't only make the task of our teachers lighter, but would also decrease massive cheating during election. But, before anything else, we must know first how reliable this programmed system is. Below are important facts and information regarding Smartmatic's PCOS machine. "

The new PCOS machine is meant to aid us to make our election process convenient and reliable. But through the date of the election and even prior to such time frame, it encountered lots of problems. "As the robotic election system (AES) is acknowledged for enhancing the counting and canvassing process, there were issues with the tests, delivery and procedure of the PCOS machines and its component parts"

A digital journalist commented, "The billion-peso robotic election task of the Philippine government is facing a serious specialized problem when the vote keeping track of machines didn't count votes for a few candidates during the mock-up polls conducted in some areas of Metro Manila. Under a week before election day, the first Philippine computerized election is in danger of being postponed or scrapped totally if the Commission payment on Elections (Comelec) and its own private partner Smartmatic cannot treatment the glitches that came up up when counting machines didn't matter the votes of local applicants. The glitches were discovered when mock elections were conducted in a few selected areas of Metro Manila and Mindoro province. "

The promised usefulness and efficiency of these PCOS machines and the integrity of the new Automated Election System in the Philippines weren't fully understood when the particular date of election came. "On Election Day, the procedure of the PCOS machines encountered numerous complex glitches, ranging from slight ones that lasted for a few momemts, to other technological problems that suspended polling for hours. As aforementioned, this greatly postponed the 5 electoral processes, prolonged hanging around times and discouraged voting. The on-site technological personnel person, if present whatsoever, often did not know how to solve the situation and got to demand external assistance. It was noted by ANFREL observers that these technicians reported that that they had received hardly any training, two times for the most part". "The Plank of Election Inspectors (BEIs) who implemented the electoral process in each polling train station should be commended for their diligent attempts. Nonetheless, several important aspects of electoral supervision were flawed, which affected the integrity of the electoral process. "

"Some issues with this year's electoral administration are not not used to Philippine elections. First of all, secrecy of the ballot was nearly impossible, due to the design of the polling train station xxx. "

"xxx Another fundamental problem was the laxity in examining voters' identity contrary to the recorded voters list. xxx"

"xxx Syndication of marketing campaign materials was also noticed outside every polling compound been to by ANFREL observers, and in many instances inside the polling premises as well. xxx"

"xxx Majority of election materials, including PCOS machines, reached respective precincts on time for the election and prepared to use, however there have been many cases where the PCOS CF cards arrived past due and circumstances of PCOS machines not arriving until sometime on Election Day itself. xxx"

"xxx in most of the precincts, BEIs weren't consistent in checking the hands for printer ink before handing on the ballot papers. "

Notwithstanding these problems that occurred during the actual day of election, still COMELEC declared that it was a total success. As stated by Gomez, Jim in his post, "Despite glitches with new computerized keeping track of machines and violence that stated at least nine lives, election representatives hailed Monday's vote as a success in a country where poll scams allegations have marred prior contests. "

Recommendations:

"Notwithstanding the results of the May 2010 elections with respect to the Country wide Elections not absolutely all of the local electoral results could be relied after to the same degree. the automatic election system is in serious need of review and remedial measures. "

With the first automatic election already conducted within the Philippines and in view of the setbacks and glitches that took place during such election, COMELEC should talk about these problems to be able to obtain better programmed elections in the future. Predicated on studies and actual experience on the prior robotic election, it is strongly advised that COMELEC should ensure that their BEI's and poll watchers, including their technicians, are incredibly well knowledgeable regarding their responsibilities during election day. The BEI's should ensure that the election process is fully and smoothly put in place to avoid unneeded setbacks with regard to the election procedures, especially with the guidelines on the amount of time which a voter is allowed in voting. This is because during the actual election, some voters where eating too much time in voting but the BEI's did not even take the necessary action. That problem brought on so much trouble to the other voters, which led to some voters being discouraged in performing exercises their right to suffrage. For the poll watchers, they need to ensure that the top priority in voting of the voters is according to the first with time rule. Those who came up to the voting precinct first should get top priority than those who came up later. What took place in the last election was voters who emerged in the voting precinct later part of the could actually vote earlier than those voters who had been already hanging around in line to vote. This is scheduled to personal reasons by the poll watchers and the abusive voters. Perhaps COMELEC should establish a way to reduce the ready time of the voters during election day; illustrations could be giving of priority statistics, or maybe establishing schedules for each precinct to be able to lessen the voters arriving in the voting area. For the part of the technicians, it is firmly suggested that COMELEC should ensure that the technicians they utilize can repair or solve any problems with respect to the procedure of the machine. That is also one aspect which resulted in the delay of the voting procedures for what actually transpired through the past election was that whenever the device breaks down, the technicians weren't in a position to fix or solve the problems.

Another aspect that COMELEC should solve is on the rules about the schedules of the delivery of the machines. As what can be observed in the last robotic election, the PCOS machines arrived at the polling place on your day of the election. That is in violation of the rules set for for legal reasons, for there's a requirement on the days that your machines should get to the polling place. The reason behind this rule is to permit the BEI's to run a test on the machine a couple of days before the election, to ensure that the machines will work properly.

Also in regards to to the aspect of voter's secrecy, COMELEC should ensure that the votes of a voter are incredibly well kept secret from other people. What actually transpired from the prior automated election was people outside the room used for voting could actually see the votes which were cast by the voter in particular when the voter is about to feed the state ballot to the PCOS machine.

There are also other advice to the COMELEC given by reliable resources to ensure a more effective and useful automated elections in the future.

"Predicated on the observations of the mission, ANFREL advises the following to make elections in the Philippines more free and fair: Implement the polices on campaign funding and spending; make all necessary work to get rid of the culture of vote buying; eliminate campaigning on polling day, both outside and inside the polling stations; enhance the voter enrollment process to ensure an genuine and reliable voters list; explore ways to modify the polling method or precinct districting in order to help boost voter involvement and public confidence in the election; ensure the secrecy of the ballot; reinforce training of BEIs and poll watchers to ensure that polling techniques are applied in a homogeneous manner, and that the polling environment is orderly and peaceful; accredit a broad and representative range of civil culture organizations, so that civil society can engage with and monitor the electoral process; design strategies to minimize the number of turned down ballots, such as conducting a manual count up of declined ballots; set up clear contingency programs for PCOS machine failure or transmission failing; publish data on the electoral process as soon as possible to increase transparency of the electoral process and allow for post-election monitoring by all stakeholders; carefully research election-related violent situations as well as occurrences of political violence, and bring the perpetrators to justice. "

From another source it explained their recommendation the following

"The delegation offered a series of recommendations so it hoped would be helpful in promoting inclusive, clear and credible elections. They included urging: The Commission on Elections to undertake a major effort to bolster general public confidence in the automated system and the impartiality of its decisions; That random manual audits should be carried out using a sizable enough test of electric voting machines to make sure public confidence in the robotic system at the national level; The military of the Philippines and the Philippines National Law enforcement to do all they can to support the integrity of the electoral process and the sanctity of the ballot, as well as bolster the safety of associates of the news marketing; Robust and common public contribution in nonpartisan citizen monitoring of elections; The federal government of the Philippines to mobilize most of its resources to teach the general public about balloting steps and the new automated system; and The election commission to make available on the Internet and in other styles the information available on campaign expenses prior to the election. "

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