The foundations of the organization of municipal service...

Foundations of Organization of Municipal Service in Foreign Countries

Revealing the features of the organization of municipal service in foreign countries, it is necessary to disclose in general the very implementation of local self-government.

Currently, there are four main models of the organization of public power in the field in the world (some authors may propose a different classification).

The Anglo-Saxon model - there are no officials appointed by the central government on the ground, as well as its representatives guarding municipal bodies, but the latter (councils, mayors, sheriffs, etc.), elected by the population, can do only that which is directly prescribed by law (Great Britain, USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, etc.).

Continental model - in the field there are special commissioners of the central government (commissars, prefects) who exercise control over municipal bodies, but the latter, elected by the population, can do anything that is not directly prohibited by law and not attributed to the competence of other bodies; along with the continental (French) model, local (communal) self-government of Germany is allocated, which is carried out on behalf of the state.

Iberian model - in each administrative-territorial unit, a council and an official (mayor, regidore, prefect, mayor) are elected, which are approved by the central authority as its representatives in an administrative-territorial unit (Latin American countries ).

The Soviet model - councils are created by elections in each administrative-territorial unit and executive committees form the management of certain spheres of local life. The Soviets are part of a single system of government bodies (councils of all levels) and are subordinate to higher councils. They can solve not only local, but also nation-wide issues (applied in the countries of totalitarian socialism - China, Cuba, North Korea).

In a number of countries at the regional level, only the appointed officials are governors (governors, stewards, voevods, etc.). There are no representative bodies elected by the population in such an administrative-territorial unit. With an official appointed from the center, an advisory body can be created. The official forms it himself, at his own discretion (as in Ukraine), or this body consists of delegates to the councils of subordinate administrative territorial units (for example, a seymic under a voivode in Poland, where two representatives from the commune councils are delegated). Sometimes, the advisory bodies under the governor are the directorate, the secretariat, consisting of the leading local government officials subordinate to the governor, as well as some other influential persons included in the management by the governor himself.

In regions, the selected councils and the top representatives of state power. This way of regional self-government and management is described above on the example of the novel-European (European continental) system in relation to the regions (regions, departments in France, etc.). Since 1996, it exists in Ukraine. With this method of management, local councils should notify the head of the state administration in the region, the commissar (prefect, etc.) of their decisions, but now such implementation decisions do not need a mandatory visa of the commissioner. If the representative of the state and the council act simultaneously in the administrative-territorial unit, the spheres of their competence are delineated by law. Therefore, there are two systems of bodies engaged in direct executive activity: officials subordinate to the representative of state power, and employees of local self-government.

In a number of Spanish-speaking countries, both councils and representatives of state power are elected. The latter, however, become such representatives only after they have been elected chairmen of local councils. Being elected chairmen of the councils, they (and only them) are appointed by the government as representatives of state power. In this case, there are no two systems of bodies engaged in direct executive activities in the region: this apparatus is headed by the chairman of the council, he is also a representative of the state, but the subjects of reference between the representative of the state and the council are delimited. A similar system exists in some parts of the administrative-territorial division in Egypt.

In the countries of totalitarian socialism, at all levels of regional division (as well as at the grass-roots level), elected councils are created, which in their turn are elected by executive committees, and sometimes also by standing committees. As noted, under this system, councils and executive committees are not viewed as bodies of local self-government and administration, but as public authorities.

Based on this, consider a number of municipal service organizations in a number of countries in more detail, taking into account the territorial organization.

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