Main directions and tendencies of development of modern political and legal thought in the West
As a result of the study of Chapter 13, the student must:
know the main trends, the specific historical patterns of origin and development, the content and specificity of ideas about the state and law in contemporary political and legal thought in the West;
• be able to determine the place and role of political and legal notions prevalent in contemporary political and legal thought in the West, in the context of world state and legal history, to the interpretation of views on the state and law of K. Myrdal, G. Laski, G. Moski, V. Pareto, K. Popper, J. Burnham, J. Galbraith, E. Fromm, FA Hayek and other political thinkers; to reveal the system of connections of political and legal theory with the historical situation in the country and the interests of various social groups of society;
• own method of analyzing and assessing the role of ideas about the state and law that have emerged in contemporary political and legal thought in the West, in the context of the evolution of world political and legal thought.
State of General Welfare: the concept of G. Myrdal
The concept of the welfare state The Swedish economist, the founder of the Stockholm School of Macroeconomics, Nobel Laureate (1974) Gunnar Karl Myrdal (1898-1987), formulated it in the works: "Outside the welfare state: economic planning and its international consequences " (1960); World economy. Problems and prospects " (1956).
F. Myrdal criticized a purely economic approach to the problem of welfare, which does not take into account political factors. According to the scientist, economists should openly proclaim political beliefs and make them the main element of research.
The concept of "welfare state" & " had the goal, without revolutions and shocks, using a coordinated public policy, to bring the economy of the capitalist state in line with the interests of the majority of citizens.
Myrdal believed that the most important thing in the "welfare state" - this is the social protection of the population, under which he understood the system of legislative, economic and social guarantees, equal conditions for increasing his well-being at the expense of his personal labor contribution, ensuring economic independence and freedom of entrepreneurship for the able-bodied population and a certain level of livelihood for disabled citizens. >
In his view, social welfare is a global trend of social and economic development. It has already been implemented in the industrialized countries of Western Europe, the United States, and Japan. On this path must go and other states.
The welfare state has a number of features, the most important of which G. Myrdal believed the following:
is a mixed economy, in which market competition is complemented by state regulation and planning. State intervention transforms the spontaneous market economy and creates the necessary conditions for maintaining equilibrium and stable economic growth. Planning is designed to regulate the activities of large economic associations and create equal economic opportunities for all;
- the presence of democratic political regime: the introduction of universal suffrage; decentralization of state power and the transfer of part of its functions to local governments and voluntary associations of citizens.
Creating social protection, according to Myrdal, provided the following directions of the state:
- providing members of society with a high living wage and providing material assistance to those who need it objectively;
- creating jobs;
- providing a high level of education, medical care, etc .;
- providing favorable working conditions for hired workers, protecting them from the negative effects of a market economy;
- ensuring environmental safety;
- protection of civil and political rights and freedoms;
- protection against political persecution and administrative arbitrariness;
- ensuring freedom of spiritual life, protection from ideological pressure;
- the creation of a favorable socio-psychological climate both in society as a whole and in individual cells and structural entities.
The most vivid embodiment of the model of the welfare state is modern Sweden. It is characterized by: attitudes towards social policy as a policy for all, understanding of it as a goal of economic activity of the state, progressive taxation system, domination of the idea of equality and solidarity, proactive nature of social measures, high level of quality and accessibility of social services, priority of the state's role in financing social expenditures at the expense of general tax revenues to the budget.
F. Myrdal urged to go beyond the organization of prosperity on a national scale and to follow the path of international economic integration. The ideal of the thinker is the attainment of the world order of social welfare in the next, i.e. in the XXI century.
However, at the present stage of development, it is not necessary to speak of a world perspective of general prosperity. Neither the Third World countries nor the countries of the post-communist camp have yet reached such an economic and social level of development in order to cope with the functions that the welfare state must fulfill.
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