USA - State and municipal service


The system of local self-government in the states is based on the administrative-territorial division, and the latter falls within the competence of the states. Therefore, local governments in different states are different.

Most of the states (except two) are divided into counties (this name is inherited from medieval England, although there were never any counts in the US, noble titles were abolished immediately after the formation of the United States). In total there are more than 3 thousand counties in the USA. Their population elects councils of counties and many officials - the sheriff, in charge of public order, the prosecutor or attorney - the state representative, the treasurer, etc. Under the guidance of the council and these officials, municipal officials approved by the council work. The board does not form a collegial executive body. The Council resolves mainly issues of the local budget, determines development programs.

Cities are separated from counties and have their own system of self-government. In the United States, there are three systems of city government. In most cities, the council-manager system is applied. The population elects a council that elects the mayor; But the mayor only presides in the council and does not engage in managerial activities. Management is carried out by a contracted specialist - an official-manager. He is responsible for budget execution, hires officials to manage specific spheres, directs their work. Approximately 40% of cities have a system council - mayor. The population separately elects the city council and the mayor who runs the city. He has the right of a suspensive veto in relation to decisions of the council, appoints officials, executes the budget and decisions of the council. In very few cities there is a commission system : the population elects a commission consisting of usually 3-7 people who simultaneously carry out the functions of the city council and are in charge of the management branches divided between them.

The counties are divided into taunas and townpieces. These names are historically formed, and, in fact, there is no difference between them, although sometimes taunas are called small towns with adjacent neighborhoods, and Townships - a group of approximately homogeneous villages. In these small administrative-territorial units, meetings of residents are held, at which common issues are resolved and an executive committee (3-5 people) is elected. In larger units, residents' meetings are held in settlements. Along with the solution of general issues and the election of the executive committee of the meeting, some officials are also elected: the treasurer, the constable, responsible for public order.

The competence of local governments is determined by the constitutions and laws of the states. It corresponds to the general principles of local self-government: the adoption and implementation of the local budget, public order issues, the provision of social services (municipal housing, hospitals, local roads, assistance to those in need), economic activities (municipal enterprises, etc.), control of local government bodies, information of the population about the acts of the federation and the state and the execution of these acts.

In addition to the administrative-territorial units in the United States, a number of special districts have been created (school, ecological, fire-fighting, etc.), which do not coincide with the administrative-territorial division, but are caused by natural causes and natural factors. In such districts, the population elects either committees or officials or the body that created the district, appoints officials there. These bodies are only approached by questions relating to the profile of the district.

In the administrative territorial units, cities, the population, or the city council, various councils and committees are also elected on various issues (school boards, guardianship councils for help to the needy, library us e advice, etc.).

Local government plays a big role in the US. More than half of the administrative workforce is employed in one hundred offices, the revenues of municipal budgets in aggregate are approximately 40% of the federal budget, although taxes are paid to local budgets from articles that yield small incomes. The powers of local authorities are extended for the same reason as state powers: they are transferred to social issues burdening the federal budget and the state budget.

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