-1937 years - History of US literature of the XX century


Poems written by Mandelstam in the 1930s, in the subsequent (posthumous) editions of the poet are combined into the section New verses , divided into chronological cycles: Moscow verses ; (1930-1934) and Voronezh notebooks (1935-1937). Most of the poems of the 1930s. was released many years after the author's death.

Changes in the social and spiritual life of the early 1930s. Mandelstam treats in the substantive plan - as a global distortion of the very face of nature (see "Lamarck": "Nature is all in the faults"). In the Moscow verses, the poet artistically sums up the eerie, delirious atmosphere of time, resorting to the Kafkian manner of writing. It shows the everydayness of the manifestations of political violence, surrealistically dissolved in everyday realities. Demonic inversions in the verses of the 1930s. reach their apogee and are embodied in an ominous substitution of physical substances, the distortion of spiritual and sensual manifestations:

And instead of the Icorena key

Domestic fear of a jet

Break into the walled walls

Moscow's evil housing.

("Flat is quiet, like paper ...")

The process of demonic substitution captures all spheres of being. It is particularly evident that it replaces human nature with an "animal" ( And according to the beast of a beast,/the human beast croaks ...), which, according to Mandelstam, is unavoidable in the era of tyranny:

And around him a rabble of thin-necked chiefs,

He plays the services of half-people,

Who whistles, who meows, who whines,

He alone babachit and pokes ...

( We live, we do not feel the country ", 1933)

The poet models the relationship between a totalitarian state and a person who feels himself not only a victim but also a co-conspirator of epoch-making acts ("No, we can not hide from the great mura ...", "For the rattling valor of future centuries ..." , "untrue"), Architectural, house-building motifs specified in "The Stone", in "Moscow Verses" change their value vector. The very idea of ​​housekeeping turns into a fiction ( A wall of the damned thin "). The temple turns out to be a frame ("Keep my speech ..."), and the house not only does not protect, but also contributes to the penetration of totalitarianism into the home life. Hence - the curse of the apartment ("The flat is quiet as paper ...", 1933).

In the same vein is embodied and "St. Petersburg", or rather - "Leningrad" subject. So, in the poem "Leningrad" (1930) the city becomes a dead space associated with the grave: "St. Petersburg ! I still have addresses,/for which I will find the dead people's voices. " This connection is also emphasized by the fact that the habitat of the lyrical subject is the "black staircase" (in connection with the "mourning" symbolism of the poem epithet "black" acquires additional meanings), topos, which due to its borderline within the framework of mythopoetic discourse turns out to be associated with the demonic "antispace". Dead the semantics of the city is also expressed in rhetorical addresses: the lyrical subject of the poem calls to Petersburg ("St. Petersburg, I do not want to die yet!"), the city that has gone to the past. As a result, the space in the poem undergoes a semantic split, which is emphasized by the double name of the city "Leningrad-Petersburg", and the lyrical "I" turns out to be the connecting link connecting two semantic aspects of the city.

The modern being of the hero of the "Moscow verses" perceives as a "plague feast". It's no accident that in the poem "I'll tell you with the last straightforward ..." (1931), the poet develops the theme of a Bacchic feast, borrowed from Pushkin's "little tragedy": "Angel Mary, Drink cocktails,/Drink wine! Based on the situation of Pushkin's "Pir during the plague," the author models a borderline-existentialist-situation and offers a paradoxical solution. To the horror of violent death, to humility in front of her, he opposes the Dionysian liberated, "carnival" behavior. The theme of the loss of loved ones, characteristic of Pushkin's "Pir ...", is translated by Mandelstam into a culturological plan. In the poem I'll tell you with the latest directness ... the post-revolutionary death of culture is experienced by the lyrical hero as a personal drama:

Where the Hellenic was shining


I gaped from the black holes

The sentiment.

Greeks have saved Elena ...

On the waves.

Well and me - salty foam

On the lips.

The situation of the "plague feast played and in the poem "For the rattling valor of future ages ..."

(1931), where the motifs of the feast and loss are interwoven, which leads to the idea of ​​losing the feast:

For the rattling valor of the coming centuries,

For a high tribe of people -

I lost the cups at the feast of the fathers,

Both fun and honor.

The motive for deprivation, loss does not exhaust the poet's attitude towards the coming epoch. Between the hero and the century an unequal struggle unfolds: "I am thrown on the shoulders of a wolfhound-age,/But I'm not a wolf by my own blood ..." The "wolfhound age", in fact, has the same mythological sign halo as Pushkin's plague : the same insoluble, disastrous circumstances, which, however, have too obvious totalitarian-Stalinist allusions ( "To not see a coward, or a flimsy mess,/No bloody bones in the wheel"). In the finale of the poem appears the motif of death in a duel of equals ("And only an equal will kill me"), which can be adequately understood only against the background of Pushkin's "Pir ...", namely, the Walsingham rapture with a battle with an equal rival - fate, destiny , plague.

The distortion of social (and according to the logic of Mandelstam, and natural) forms of life is opposed by the poet, who makes sense of his role as a mission of "restoration" the correct order of the world. That is why the theme of poetic creativity takes on the face of the Hamlet task of straightening out "sprained" century. In Moscow verses poetic speech, like speech in general, is a force opposing the entropic tendencies of the society, which was embodied, in particular, in the anger-journalistic incandescence of poems directed against the regime ("We live without ourselves feeling the country ...", Old Crimea "," Apartment ... ").

Based on the notions of the Logos nature of the word, Mandelstam attributes the ontological function to the sounding speech, so the numbness of the world, the deafness symbolize the last stage of regression - as social ("Our speeches are not heard ten steps in the poem" We live under us not sensing the country ... "), and the ontological (" comes the deafness of the spider "- in" Lamarcke "). Hence the combination in one metaphorical series of the sky and the palate, water, and speech.

In natural being, understood by him as the universal universe, Mandelstam finds a harmony, which he contrasts with the fractures of society. So, in the cycle Eightness " nature appears as a mirror of the universe, each element of which reflects the unity of the world and simultaneously is associated with spiritual and creative processes. And if in nature its "hardening" is overcome, then it can be overcome in the universal being, both physical and spiritual.

Mandelstam comes to the idea of ​​the conciliarity of poetic creativity in apocalyptic times. He speaks on behalf of everyone: "We live" ... Our speeches ... "In the" Extracts from the destroyed verses " the poet directly states:

I speak for all with such force,

To the sky became the palate to the lips

Cracked like pink clay.

On May 13, 1934, Mandelstam was arrested for an invective directed against Stalin: "We live under ourselves without feeling the country ..." (1933). The interrogator called these verses "an unprecedented counter-revolutionary document" on interrogation. " The verdict is three years of exile (first to Cherdyp, then to Voronezh). About the publication of poems and translations could no longer be a question, the press did not mention even the name of Mandelstam. The poet was oppressed not so much by the disastrous material situation and status of the exile, as by the spiritual isolation in which he found himself in Voronezh. But the more hopeless the social position of the poet became, the more clearly his "universe delight" appeared in his lyrics, which, in his understanding, natural existence was fulfilled.

In the "Voronezh notebooks" (1935-1937) along with the verses continuing the tragic line of "Moscow poems" ("Having deprived me of the seas, takeoffs and dispersals ...", 1935; "I'm immersed in a lion's ditch and in a fortress ...", 1937; "Where do I go this January?", 1937), poems appear in which the enslavement and doom of physical flesh is overcome by creative freedom, spiritual joy. According to the researcher, "there is an amazing connection between the personal oppression of the poet and the unlimited freedom of his creativity." Creativity, in the understanding of Mandelstam, is a "sighing", opposed to any oppression. The poet writes "on the aortic rupture", overcoming the limitations of "time and place".

Harmonious identity of the heavenly and earthly, natural and man-made reflects a single law of the universe, which is subject to both culture and nature, and in the poems of recent years - and society. Changes in Mandelstam's worldview and poetics are most clearly manifested in the transformation of substantive motives. Not accidentally "Voronezh notebooks" opens with a poem "Black Earth" (1935), which sounds like a declaration of acceptance of the world. Black Earth turns out to be the equivalent of the "bosom of the heart", the fundamental principle of life, and at the same time the fundamental principle of creativity, the material substance that already contains "music and the word": "Thousandhold plowed rumors <... & gt; // Rotting flute makes you hear,/Clarinet morning zazyblivaet ear ... & quot ;. But since harmony is dissolved in stagnant matter ( And yet the earth is an ailment and a shoe), then it can be extracted only by the "plowing", "constructive work", for which the earth is destined .

The key and actually symbolic role in the poems of the Voronezh period is played by the image of the sky. From the poem to the poem the sky acquires new qualities, it merges with the "sky of art" arena of demonstration "delightful power" nature, then an apocalyptic battlefield. So, in the Verses about the Unknown Soldier (1937) "the sky of large wholesale deaths" turns around not only the air grave, , but also the biblical sky of the Last Judgment. Towards the end of the Voronezh cycle, the sky becomes a sliding and lifelike house, the eternal evening of the night, which in its all-encompassing integrity is made a pledge of immortality: Flowers Flowers are immortal, the sky is whole ... ( There are women of the raw earth native ... ").

One of the features of ontological semantics in Voronezh notebooks - the flow of one natural substance into another. The air is merged with the earth ("Black Earth"), with a stone (" Air-stone theater of times growing" from the poem "Where is the knotted and nailed groan? .."). Breath is the human measure of the sky; the inner wind connecting man and the sky. The Pine Grove Act is a law that determines the synthesis of natural and cultural principles.

Hence the concept of creativity, which the poet develops in a different way than in the "Moscow verses". If in Eighties poetry was interpreted as an irrational way of knowing the world, now the poet, identifying nature and creativity, focuses on "man-made" and the miracle of art, and the miracle of the universe. Returning to the old motif "games of God with people", the poet contrasts the game at the level of the creation of the world and "sweat and experience" as a way to achieve this state. Just like the created world under the "temporary sky of purgatory" is opposed to some deep "sky" that hides transcendental depths, which can only be hinted "in black, whispering".

In the final verses of the "Voronezh Notebooks" The poet, "lost in the sky", refers to the one to whom it is close ", i.e. to God, and the sky itself becomes for him "sky heaven". The poem "The sky has fallen in love with the wall ..." (1937) is dedicated to the fresco "The Last Supper" Leonardo da Vinci - a picturesque image of sobornost ', to whose understanding the work of the late Mandelstam is directed.

Christ and the apostles are the prototype of the ideal humanity, and ideal creativity, but Mandelstam's definition, is "imitation of Christ". Stars - the image of the apostles mourning the death of the Sun. But their painful death is inevitable, the historical framework is shifted ("Everything is chopped off by the light of the scars"). In the era of totalitarianism, everyone was crucified; punished innocently, is like Christ. History is transformed beyond time into a myth - according to Mandelstam, this is the interaction of art and life. Eternity does not accept its likeness, the heavenly firmament becomes a wallobit stronghold. Dialog two skies - the biblical sky (eternal) and the sky of art (stopping time, according to and destroyed by it), resurrecting the myth, reveals the nature of time in art - as a lasting eternity:

And under every battering ram ...

Stars without chapters are showered:

The same painting of new wounds -

The unfinished eternity of the haze ...

The latest poems of the Voronezh Notebooks show that Mandelstam approached the Christian understanding not only of art, but of life and death. Hence the poet's desire for conciliarity and the hope of a universal resurrection, the image of which ends "Poems about the Unknown Soldier":

Poured in the blood of the aorta,

And it sounds like a whisper in the ranks:

- I was born in the ninety-fourth,

I was born in the ninety-second

& lt; ... & gt;

And the centuries surround me with fire ...

With the idea of ​​conciliarity, the interpretation of the masses in the spirit of the Jungian theory of the "collective unconscious" is also connected. The people are not faceless and unnamed mass, the guardian of the genetic, tribal memory of mankind:

Not me, not you - they have

All the strength of the generic endings:

With their air they sing a reed and a borehole,

And with the gratitude of the snails of human lips

Draw their breathing heaviness.

There is no name for them. Go into their cartilage -

And you will be the heir to their principalities ...

In the verses of the 1930s. the image of the lyric hero changes. On the one hand, he is a "man of Muscovite epoch", "a tram cherry of terrible time" ("Wherever we are with you ...", "We'll sit in the kitchen with you ...", "Not true", "It's still far from me to the patriarch ...", etc.) . But even in this capacity, his perception of life and his life situations become a broad typological generalization of the destinies of millions of people. Hence the choral polyphony, in which the author's voice is only one of many; software survey poetics; rigidity and last straightforward lyrical intonation ("I'll tell you with the last ...", "Flat ...", "No, do not hide from the great mura ...", "To your narrow shoulders under the pests blush." .. "," You have not died yet, yet you are not alone ... "," This is what street ... ", etc.), correlating with the" democratic " and the beggarly-tragic appearance of the lyric hero.

On the other hand, the hero of the "Moscow verses" and Voronezh Notebooks Is a lyrical subject, aware of himself as a charismatic leader, bearing a "fatal burden" its tragic time, and at the same time yearning for world culture. Hence a huge number of literary subtexts in the "Voronezh notebooks" associated with world culture.

So, in Verses about an unknown soldier Shakespearian, Byron, Lermontov and many other literary allusions are found. The memory of mankind is the living embodiment of conciliarity, and the conciliar consciousness, according to Mandelstam, is a mass consciousness and simultaneously prophetic. It includes the consciousness of "millions of killed cheaply", for which the poet says ("I'm carrying my lips in the void"), At the same time his speech for them and for them is the same message, "flying with a light-dust update" news of the Apocalypse and the Second Coming. The words From me it will be light to the world " are projected as on the gospel text (" I am the light of the world ", John 8:12), and on the apocalyptic situation: There will be people cold, sickly/Kill, cold, starve ... The oracle predicts what can happen, the prophet is something that can not be avoided. Free choice is no longer possible.

And if, according to Mandelstam, the poetic word can be the guardian of the past, then it can also bear witness to the future. The prophetic theme of the "Poems about the Unknown Soldier" naturally follows from this mythological idea. The poet models reversibility of time, combining in the space of one poem different times, but such, according to Mandelstam, is the nature of a poetic word that denies time.

In an essay, "Conversation about Dante" (1933), Mandelstam indirectly substantiated the principles of his later poetics, the essence of which is determined by the new function of the word - the function of "collecting and saving" world, including collecting time. This, in turn, actualized the search for mechanisms for restoring the cultural-historical "memory" the words. In the articles of the 1920s. the word was treated as a "collapsed story". Now, in the era of "unconsciousness" 1930s, the art practice of Mandelstam personally shows how the word manages to be the keeper of culture and history, and hence time. Using the citational-metonymic principle of the image, designed to include the associative memory mechanism, Mandelstam at the same time works with the internal form of the word, constructing in the verse space entire semantic paradigms that include direct, portable and contextual meanings (see § 10.2.1).

* * *

In May 1937, the Voronezh link was over, but the poet was forbidden to live in Moscow. Mandelshtam have to settle in Kalinin. The second time, Osip Mandelstam was arrested on the night of May 1, 2, 1938. Then Lubyanka, "veal" and in December 1938 death in the "hell" Vladivostok forwarding camp. Fate limited the time of Mandelstam's earthly life: in times of "great terror" poets are being killed. In his life, completely dissolved in creativity, became the Word.

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