27.2. Artistic world of VF Khodasevich
The attitude towards Khodasevich's poetic creativity was not unambiguous. In the high estimation of his poems Maxim Gorky and Zinaida Gippius, who hated each other, converged.
Khodasevich, wrote M. Gorky in 1922-1924, "an extremely large figure, a classic poet and a great strict talent.""About your poems," wrote the demanding Z.N. Gippius to Khodasevich July 9, 1926, "I will say, without newspaper outfits, very accurately: they are, first of all, rest-enjoyable. You in vain call them rude: I am fascinated by this your modern bias towards simplicity, the search for simplicity (the first is necessary, and God will keep returning to it).
Khodasevich's famous critic DP Svyatopolk-Mirsky gave a directly opposite assessment: "Little Baratynsky from the Underground, Favorite Poet of Those Who Do not Love Poetry." This thought was picked up and developed by GV Ivanov, whose article "In defense of Khodasevich" ("Latest News", 1928, March 8) argued that one should not compare, as was often done in the criticism of those years, Khodasevich with Pushkin, Baratynsky and Blok. They are creators, and Khodasevich is a skilful and cold version of a writer, an imitator devoid of inspiration. Khodasevich really often and willingly resorted to the poetics of his predecessors.
"He himself," recalls NN Berberova, "led his genealogy from Derzhavin's proseisms, from some of the more" hard " Tyutchev's verses, through very scary Sluchevsky's poems about the old woman and the balalaika and the "old man's" Annensky's intonation. "
In the poem with a name characteristic of United States literature (and this is also the adherence to the classical tradition), "Monument" Khodasevich wrote: "In me the end, in me the beginning & quot ;. Thus, he stressed that along with the classical tradition in his poems there is the development of problems that were hardly outlined by the classics and who stood up in full growth only in the twentieth century. In many respects, the poetic arsenal of predecessors was re-used in a new way. It is enough to compare the iamb and the white verse of the late works
A. S. Pushkin ("I again visited ...", "It's time, friends, burrow ...", "I'm wandering along the streets of noisy ...", "Autumn", etc.) with poems written in the same poetic rhythm by Khodasevich (Episode, Monkey, House) to see the essential difference. If Pushkin's complicated verse is designed to evoke philosophical reflections on the harmony of being, create a sense of peace and gratitude for life, faith in its endless development, then Khodasevich's lack of rhymes and multifaceted iambicisms conveys the unethical nature of life, recreates a tragic and contradictory being.
Following the classical tradition and its development can be traced in the analysis of the collection "By the grain."
By grain (1920)
The title of the collection and his first poem based on the Gospel verse "If the wheat grain fallen into the ground does not die, there will be one, and if it dies, it will bear much fruit" (H. 12:24) does not deprive us of the hope of solving the contradiction between life and death. This gives grounds to talk about the poet's development of an optimistic note, traditional for the nineteenth-century United States classics:
So my soul goes by the grain: Going to darkness, will die - and it will come to life.
And you, my country, and you, its people,
You will die and come to life, having passed through this year, -
Then, that wisdom is one to us: To all living, to go the way of grain.
The theme of grain, hope, leitmotif passes through the entire book of poems, most fully embodied in the "Stansa" ("The Soul is full of sweet fullness/Zerna mute germination") and enclosing the book of the poem "Breads". But it is these strictly following traditions of United States poetry that the poems are declarative, speculative. The greatest impression on the reader is produced either by poems, where a ray of hope also flashes, but also reflections on the insoluble tragedy of dying ("Noon", "Meeting", "Monkey"), or poems recreating only the drama of modern life. And then in Khodasevich's story about the autumn, which Pushkin had "a beautiful hole, charming eyes", the first place is the "non-warming sun," looking at the aged women/And the unshaven men. " L instead of the "wind of noise and fresh breath" - bitter bile smell ... morning ( -th November ). And even a child, this age-old symbol of the continuation of life, will become the "idol of life" living alone and smiling "meaningless smile". And, probably, to further emphasize polemics with Pushkin, Khodasevich concludes the poem with the words:
... for the first time in my life
Neither "Mozart and Salieri", nor "Gypsies" On that day, my thirst was not quenched.
Beautiful Venice ("Noon", "Meeting"), three-masted boats on the matchbox ("Anyuta") are in the past. In today's life - other than in the poem "Monkey":
Huge raspberry sun, devoid of rays,
In the opal smoke hung. Poured fever on the stunted wheat.
If we consider that the first lines of the poem tell us about the heat, burning forests and screaming (even in the neighboring cottage) cock, then the apocalyptic landscape of the end of the world is evident. Traditional for poets of the XIX century. the sea at Khodasevich's "sings with a lethal jet/Without consolation", and the hero breathes the "Aides" (from Aid ) coolness. The singer of love and beauty nightingale "click and clink" Khodasevich's "desperate trepidation of his own life" ("Cute girls, believe or not believe ..."). In the poem "Tears of Rachel Khodasevich enters into a dispute with FI Tyutchev: "Woe to us, that by the will of God/In this terrible hour this world was visited!" 2 Agreeing with Pushkin's words: "There is a rapture in battle,/
And the abyss of the gloomy on the edge (compare with Khodasevich in the poem "House": "And the man with the soul of the inexorable/throws himself into the desired abyss"), - the poet immediately asserts that all this is in vain, for "Grades, kingdoms,/laws of truth - transcend" , and life "flows away".
The lyrical hero of the collection likes symbolic comparisons. He sees himself as an acrobat, walking along the rope on the verge of life and death; a sailor on a ship, whose life is in the hands of the Lord; then a spider-crusader, who does not know his terrible strength. Sometimes these images have a deliberate, albeit unexpected character: the autumn apple-tree appears to the poet as a decrepit body, vainly reaching out to life; the stitch of a seamstress on a cambric handkerchief causes an association with the human being - "then into life, then into death by running over." The thought of the poet invariably refers to the "bitter death" ( Morning & quot ;, Variation ). The artist's fantasy allows him to look at the body, left by the soul, from the side ( Episode ). And no matter how it was said in the opening and closing poems of the book about the possibility of continuing life, this second circle of the table is as dramatic as the first one:
The rows of columns of solemn il holes The doors of yesterday's - a traveler all the same From the emptiness of one lead to another Such ...
( Home )
The senseless, the tragedy - that life, that death - is amplified here by an ellipse.
The variety of classical dimensions (in the book you can find six-stems of the eighteenth century, and the tetrameter iambic verse, beloved by poets of the 20th century), the genre forms of the preceding epochs (stanzas, epistles, parables, meditations) sometimes prevent us from seeing quite a wide circulation the poet to the discoveries of the twentieth century and his own, sometimes pointedly innovative contribution to the arsenal of artistic means of United States poetry. Khodasevich, by his own admission, every verse drives "through prose, dislocating every line". From this point of view, the poem "Brenta", preceded by the epigraph with the enthusiastic words of Alexander Pushkin: "Adriatic waves! Oh, Brent! .. With no less admiration, Lord Byron, PL Vyazemsky, Ye. P. Rostopchin wrote about Breit. The more unexpected and polemical is the beginning of the eponymous poem by Khodasevich: "Brenta, red-haired rechka!" The poet did not fail to notice the dull streams of Brent and conclude that she is a "lying image of beauty". So the final is unexpected:
Since then, I love Brent, Prose in life and poetry.
The prose of life is introduced by Khodasevich, as then with even greater boldness it will be introduced by GV Ivanov, almost in every poem. The naturalistic details overflow the poem "Home". In one of the most tragic poems Episode will be mentioned such reduced details as a pile of firewood, a bath, a sofa on which a hero sits.
And yet the classical tradition, the desire to optimistically solve even the theme of life and death, prevail here, and in the next book of the writer "Heavy Lyre". A little later in the article "About Tyutchev" Khodasevich will write that for the solution of the torments of double being the poet needs to "start a higher, reconciling everything, even if incomprehensible to the mind". Tyutchev, according to the author of the essay, was looking for such a beginning in God and did not find it. Khodasevich himself sought him in poetry ...Framing the first book ( Music ) and the last ( Ballade ) poems contain the idea that among the prose of life only a poet is given the feel of an inaudible symphony. No domestic turmoil and trivialities of life can deprive the world of the inner sense, perceived, perhaps, not by the mind, but by superhuman, intuition ("Lida", "Ballad"):
But sounds are more truthful than meaning, And the word is stronger.
And music, music, music Weaves into my singing, And narrow, narrow, narrow The blade pierces me.
( Ballad )
The theme of Orpheus, a singer who descended into the underworld of Hades and thus connected the pot-and-this-world being, sounded in the prerevolutionary work of the poet (poem "The Return of Orpheus", 1909). Three years later in the poem "Centuries passed over the world ..." Khodasevich will develop this motif, turning it into a theme of Orpheus of the 20th century.
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