Complex units - Introduction to Linguistics

Complex units

§ 169. Complex units of word formation are all kinds of associations (complexes) of related words, somehow connected by the relations of word-formation production, or schemes for constructing derivative words, characterized by a commonness of certain (formal and semantic) features. Among them are: 1) units representing associations of single root words of different derivational structures, connected by a common root morphemes or generating bases, word-building bases, and 2) units that represent schemes for constructing dissimilar words, connected by the commonality of word-formation means, formants (formats).

The first group of complex word-forming units includes such units as word-building nests, derivational paradigms, word-building chains, word-formation pairs.

The largest complex unit of this group is the word-building nest , which, after AN Tikhonov, can be defined as the "set of single-root words ordered by the relations of word-formation production." These are all derived words of a given language having the same root, and also a primary, non-derivative word, which is called the apex of the derivational nest, the center of the derivational nest, or the center of word formation. As an example of the word-building nest, you can say: teach, learn, learn, learn, teach, wean, teach, teach, learn, disaccustom, retrain, study, unlearn, study, study, learning, teacher, teacher, teaching, teaching, teaching, pupil, student, apprenticeship, scientist, scholarship and some others. The vertex of this derivational nest is the only non-derivative word - the verb teach. Complex words containing two or more root morphemes refer to different derivational nests. So, for example, the noun the railwayman is part of two word-building nests - with the vertices iron and the road, the word fruit storage refers to the three nests - with the vertices fruit, vegetables and stored.

The word-formation paradigm is a collection of derived words that are directly motivated by the same single-root word (non-derivative or derivative) that differ from a given, motivating word by a single word-formant. Within the framework of the above derivational nest with the vertex to learn , such derivational paradigms can be distinguished, for example: learn, memorize, study, teach, wean, retrain, teach, teach, teach, school, teacher, student, etc. (all of them are directly motivated by the verb teach, which is not part of the paradigm); Teacher, Teacher, Teacher (directly motivated by the noun Teacher).

The word-forming chain forms a series of single-root words that consistently differ from each other by a single word-formant. It includes one root, non-derivative word and two or more derivatives. Examples: teach, study, study; teach, teach, teach, teach.

Two single-root words that differ in one word-formant, i.e. connected with each other by relationships of immediate motivation, are called a word-forming pair (cf .: teach and teach, teach and learn, and teacher, teacher and teaching, teaching and teach).

The second of the above-mentioned groups of complex word-forming units includes word-formation models and word-formation types.

The derivational model can be defined as a formal scheme for constructing derived words characterized by a common part of the speech of their producing and the identity of the word-formative formant, for example: type, sketch, accumulate, cover, write, draw , etc. (they all have a prefix on) as the producing verb, as a word-building tool, or formant; author, fraternal, director, Moscow, Pushkin, university, January , etc. (producing for all these words is the noun, word-building means - suffix -ok-); the backrest, the patella, the armrest, the duvet cover, the window sill, the candlestick, the snowdrop, the cup holder, the front lamp , etc. (all of them are separate derivatives with the word formative representing the combination of the prefix under - and the suffix -nik). There are other interpretations of the concept of the word-formation model.

The word-formation type is a formal-semantic scheme for constructing derived words characterized by a common part of the speech of the producing, word-formant and word-formative meaning. Given the definition of the word formation model formulated above, the word-formation type can be defined as a formal-semantic scheme of derivative words constructed according to a certain model and having the same word-formative meaning.

By the word-building meaning is understood as the "generalized, categorical value of the derived words of a certain formal (word-building) structure, established on the basis of the semantic relationship of the derivative words of the given structure with the corresponding generators." So, for example, all United States nouns formed from verbs with the help of the suffix -jel ( pest, inhabitant, publisher, tester, dreamer, writer, teacher, teacher, keeper, reader, muffler, kapnitel, heater, reflector, and many others), differing in their lexical meanings, express, according to some scholars, one common, word-building meaning; they name a person or an object producing an action or intended to perform an action called a motivating word & quot ;. Many adjectives formed from nouns with the suffix -k- {iron, copper, cast iron, potato, strawberry, strawberry, flour, meat, sugar, , etc.), or some of them, along with others derivational meanings, have the following: consisting, manufactured, prepared from what is designated by the generating word (compare, for example: iron lock, copper samovar, meat of the cutlet, potato puree, strawberry jam); "manufactured, prepared with addition of one containing what is designated by the producing word" (cf .: meat borsch, strawberry ice cream, iron ore); similar to that which resembles what is indicated by the generating word (cf .: iron character, sugar teeth).

It follows from the foregoing that words of the same word-formation model can represent a separate word-formation type (as in the case of verbal nouns containing the suffix -person -) or refer to different types (as in the case with adjective adjectives with the suffix -n -).

The term word-formation type Many linguists (BN Golovin, AI Moiseev, VV Lopatin, IS Ulukhanov, VI Maksimov, etc.) are also used to denote the aggregate of derived words characterized by the above-mentioned signs of the word-building type in the first, main meaning of this term.

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