Conclusion - The history of foreign literature of...


After the end of the Second World War, profound changes took place in the world, capturing the main spheres: the economy, politics, social relations, the most vital way of many people. The tragic experience of the preceding decades brought certain adjustments to some familiar notions and priorities. All this, of course, was complicatedly reflected in literature, in the most artistic climate. The attention from political and social problems, so significant in the 1930s, as a whole, has shifted to the area of ​​interest in the individual's inner life, psychological moral and ethical problems. All this in its own way was refracted in specific national literatures, in artistic searches of great artists of the word. Although realism has maintained a fairly stable position, the traditional language of literature and its style have undergone obvious changes. In the early postwar decades, has continued to create live classics such as Hemingway, Faulkner, Thomas Mann, O'Neill, Hesse, Brecht and others. But the fore already a new generation of writers, many of whom were war, with its specific experiences .

On the whole, the role of writers of a radical, socialist orientation has inexorably declined. One of the most influential among them, Aragon, a poet, prose writer, publicist, disillusioned with dogmatic Marxism and Socialist Realism, in his later "experimental" style refers to a wide range of non-traditional artistic techniques, including poetics, characteristic of surrealism. In general, by the 1950s-1960s. leftist, socialist ideas, together with the decline of the communist movement in Western Europe, the exposure of Stalinism began to lose their attractiveness among the masters of culture.

After the war, a wide resonance in different literatures acquired the ideas of existentialism, which received the most vivid embodiment of the writers of France, among them world-class artists Albert Camus ("Extraneous", "Plague") and J.-P. Sartre ("Nausea", drama, prose, philosophical essays). Impresses the achievements of French prose (Moriak, Vercor, Merle, Bazin) and poetry (Aragon, Saint-Jean-Peres, Prever). It was in France that innovative tendencies in the literature of the modernist orientation were particularly resolutely manifested: a new novel (N. Sarroth, Robb Grieill), and the theater of the absurd, or the antithera ("The Rhinoceroses" by E. Ionesco, "Waiting for Godot" Beckett), interesting samples of postmodernism are exhibited in the works of Simon and F. Sollers.

In England, impressive achievements in the novel genre of W. Golding ( Lord of the Flux & quot ;, Spire ) and G. Green ( Our Man in Havana & quot ;, Comedians), as well as C.P. Snow, A. Murdoch, J. Fowles. The post-war new drama is most vividly represented by such masters as Nobel laureate T. Stoppard and G. Pinter.

In the literature of Germany, where the poet of expressionism has preserved the importance, the successes of prose are connected with the work of Nobel laureates G. Böll ("The eyes of a clown", "Group portrait with a lady", etc.) and G. Grass ("Tin Drum" ;). In their works, as well as in the writings of writers Borchert, Keppen, playwrights P. Weiss, R. Hohhut, the poetess G. Benn, N. Sachs received an artistic refraction of the anti-fascist theme, the problems of the "unresolved past" and those specific psychological collisions that are brought to life by the "consumer society". In difficult conditions the literature of the GDR developed most vividly in the works of A. Zegers.

If the interwar twentieth anniversary was the "golden age" American literature, the post-war period, which gave artists equal to Hemingway and Faulkner, is nevertheless characterized by undoubted artistic wealth. These are original and bright prose writers Updike and Vonnegut, Styron and Bellow, playwrights Miller, T. Williams, Albee, whose plays constitute an indispensable part of the world theater repertoire, representatives of ethnic groups, writers internationally recognized, J. Baldwin, T. Morrison. The artistic palette has enriched the "magical realism", most heavily represented in Latin American literatures, primarily by Garcia Marquez and in such a masterpiece as the novel "One Hundred Years of Solitude." In the post-war decades, the tradition and artistic discoveries of the masters of modernism Proust, Kafka, Joyce retain their significance. Postmodern literature, a phenomenon that has been ambiguously evaluated, also produced original samples, such as P. Ziuskind's novels "Perfume" and U. Eco Rose's name & quot ;.

Expansion of inter-literary contacts, active dialogue of cultures made the notion of world literature particularly significant. Expands geography Nobel laureates in literature: United Statess Sholokhov, Solzhenitsyn, Brodsky, Chilean Neruda, Colombian Garcia Marquez, Japanese Yasunari Kawabata, Chinese Gao Xinjiang, Icelander Hallor Saxiang, Icelandic José Saramagu, Guatemalan Miguel Angel Asturmas, Pole Czeslaw Milosz, Egyptian Nagib Mahfouz, Czech Jaroslav Seyfert, Greek Odiseas Elitis and many others.

The study of foreign literature at the final stage - and it is addressed to today's life experience and perceptions of the student audience - is associated with a number of specific scientific and methodological problems that must be borne in mind. Estimates of the role of a number of writers in the literary process are not yet fully formed. Along with the artists, adherents of the manner close to the traditional one, we encounter writers as experimenters, innovators in the sphere of form and style: their works are often difficult to interpret from the point of view of the usual approaches. Of particular importance is the work in practical exercises, during which, naturally, there can and should be discussions and, possibly, ambiguous assessments. This primarily refers to the phenomena of modernist orientation, to the samples of the new novel (N. Sarroth), the drama of the absurd (Ionesco, Beckett), to texts close to the style of postmodernism ("The Rose's name", U. Eco, K. Simon's prose). Similar problems are encountered in the interpretation of samples of magical realism (the novel "One Hundred Years of Solitude" by Marquez), Late Prose and Aragon's poetry, Verses of Prever, G. Baine, Auden, etc. In this regard, useful material is contained in the book "Foreign Literature of the Twentieth Century" ; (edited by I. V. Kabanova, M., 2007).

Salinger, late Steinbeck, Moriak, Böll, Grass, Golding, Green turn out to be complicated in their design and narrative manner. Interest should also be aroused by the specific nature of the refraction of philosophical ideas, especially existentialism, as well as Freudianism in the works of such great artists as Camus and Sartre. Understanding the texts will help familiarity with the direct statements of the named authors on literary, aesthetic and philosophical problems. There are collections of statements about the literature of writers of France, England, the USA, Scandinavia, etc. It is also useful to trace the specifics of the musical, theatrical and cinematic interpretations of some of the works of art included in the present course (Hemingway, Brecht, T. Williams, A. Miller, Böll, R P. Warren, and others).

The extensive scientific and educational literature is devoted to the problems of the literature studied. This course provides rich opportunities for fruitful independent development. An analysis of theatrical productions of outstanding playwrights of the 20th century is also useful, and a review of the novelties of foreign literature. At the same time, students should take into account that in some studies of the Soviet period, which retain their undoubted value, there are certain ideological emphases caused by the political conjuncture of those years. At the same time, in the works of the post-Soviet period there is a new approach to a whole series of phenomena, especially the "unrealistic", postmodern orientation. They are assessed objectively without false ideological bias, with the necessary attention to philosophical and aesthetic religious problems. True, they sometimes notice a certain underestimation of historical and social factors, as well as the merits of literary criticism of the Soviet period, the works of A. Anikst, TL Motyleva, V. Ivasheva, A. I. Startseva, B. L. Suchkov and other

Unfortunately, many literary phenomena, interesting and vivid, due to the limited scope of existing curricula, remain outside the scope of this textbook, especially the second volume. This applies to Hispanic, Slavic, Scandinavian, not to mention Oriental, literature. A whole series of writers, "good and different," is said to be condensed in the overview chapters and paragraphs. Gaps in this plan can be replenished in the process of reading special courses and independent work, as well as training in the magistracy. The main support is the availability of extensive scientific and critical literature, reference books and bibliographies. This concerns texts (the 200-volume "Library of World Literature", BVL), other serial publications (for example, "Literary Monuments"), as well as two-volume "Foreign Writers." The Bibliographical Dictionary of the "9-volume" History of World Literature (IMLI RAS), as well as academic histories of English, American, French, German, Italian, Polish and other literatures.

In the current two-volume book, it is hoped that there are prerequisites for continuing a more focused and extensive study of foreign literature already at a new stage of university learning.

The beginning of the new millennium is marked by intensive scientific and technological progress, a powerful development of the media and especially television, which have a powerful impact on the spiritual, emotional, intellectual life of people. Under these conditions, the role and importance of literature changes noticeably, and writers, even the most authoritative ones, cease to be "rulers of doom". To the fore, other "heroes" are put forward; and stars newspaper pages, movies and TV screens. But no matter how distressing for the culture processes occur, the art book and the high literary word will remain companions of both the younger generations and intelligent, thinking people. An art book, a classic can never be replaced by anything.

... For four years, while there was work on the courses included in the two-volume book, students made a literary journey through the centuries, continents and countries from Homer and the fairytale "Iliad" up to Hemingway and Marquez. During this time, it is hoped, they not only received professional knowledge of the historical and literary process, its tendencies and patterns. They got acquainted with the problems, plots, heroes and stylistics of classical samples of world literature. This not only formed their scientific literary methodology, but expanded their life horizons. These were meetings not only with great books, but with their publishers, creators. With writer's individualities and destinies, often uneasy. Meetings with artists talented, often brilliant, devoted to creativity, at the behest of the soul, chose a literary path, multi-toned, sometimes associated with disappointments, pain, grief. And yet every such meeting is significant. For as the poet said: "Talent is the only news that is always new."

But in addition to solving educational and educational problems, when studying literature, due to its specificity, there is another, in essence, super task. And it is conditioned by the moral and ethical potential, in it the prisoners. Verbal art should not be a substitute for politics. Although there were times when, as at the time of the fight against fascism, it was a weapon. But right Garcia Marquez, when he writes that any writer - is progressive, because it helps readers and society? Any great art, no matter how different the philosophical and ideological positions of readers, can not but be humanistic. Hc can express in a frank or implicit way compassion for a person.

Throughout the history of world literature, mainly, though not always, they were in opposition to the authorities that displayed totalitarian tendencies, condemned violence, xenophobia, cowardly conformism, philistine indifference, greed and, finally, social injustice. And yet, in the most bitter satire, in the harshest criticism, there was almost always a glimmer of light and hope. What is expressed in a formula that is true at all times: "Hurry to do good."

The literature gave us such heroes. Our spiritual companions. And Hamlet, and Don Quixote, the wise madman, and Faust, who appeared "the last conclusion of the wisdom of the earth." And they teach us in their own way how to become purer and better. It is recalled that the life goal is one material prosperity, comfort and welfare, that the highest happiness is spiritual growth and action for oneself as well as for others. What does not man live by bread alone?

The strength of the classics is in its inexhaustibility. It must be re-read. And on the new life turn, based on new personal and social experience, to find those unsolved truths that are so necessary for us. Without them, a person can not be human. About this the poet said very important words:

And if I'm not a handful,

And if you do not burn,

And if we do not burn,

Then who will scatter the darkness?

Literature is always a search. So it was in the past and in the present. This is her future. And therefore the final phrase of the two-volume edition can only be this: it should be continued.

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