Conjugation of verbs - Modern US literary language

§ 13. Conjugation of verbs

Conjugation is a change in the verb by persons, numbers, times, moods, and in the past tense and the subjunctive mood - by birth. Conjugation is also called the type of word modification of the verb in the present or future time, characterized by the generality of the vowels in the composition of personal endings. Depending on the system of endings in the forms of present or future time, all verbs (with a few exceptions) are divided into verbs I and II of conjugation. Verbs of the perfect form, forming the forms of the future prime time, have the same endings as the present verb forms of imperfective verbs, but differ in their meaning; in the word change, the forms of the future simple are described as forms of the present time.

I conjugation includes verbs with endings, shown in Table. 37 (in spelling).

Table 37. Verbs of I conjugation

Face

Single Number

Plural

1

- y, -y ( lead , play )

-em , -em ( lead , play )

2

-y , -y ( lead , play )

-yte , -et ( lead , play )

3

is , -et ( plays , plays )

-out , -yut ( lead , play )

Comment. The basis of the present tense of verbs I of conjugation ends in a pair of hard consonant, hissing, soft [ p '], [ n' ] or [ j ]. When forming forms 2 and 3 liters. singular and 1 and 2 liters. plural the final solid consonant bases (other than the sibilant [ w ], [ x ]) alternate: pair-solid - with the corresponding soft, back-to-back [ to ] , [ r ] - with hissing [ h ], [ x ]: ve [] -out - ve [ d'-o ] w , [ c ] -out - not [ c'-o ] m , ne [ k ] -out - ne [ ch-o ] w , stri [ r ] -out - stri [ f ] -yosh. In normalized speech only the verb weave has no alternation [ k-h ] ( - weak , weave , by , weaker ), in the common speech form with the absence of alternation of the back of the tongue with a spine we meet more often.

To II conjugation are the verbs having the endings shown in Table. 38 (in spelling).

Table 38. Verbs II conjugations

Face

Single number

Plural

1

-y , -y ( be silent , praise )

-im ( be silent , praise )

2

-you ( be silent , praise )

-it ( be silent , praise )

3

-out ( is silent , compliments )

-am , -yat ( silent , praise )

Comment. The basis of the present time of II conjugation ends in a pair-soft consonant, hissing or [ j ]. With the formation of 1 liter. singular there are alternations [ o '] - in [ n ], [ φ ] [ n '], [ b' ] - b [ n '], [ n ] - n [ n '], [ m ] - m [], c [ t '] - (` w' ), [ т '- ч ], [ д' - ж ], [ Z '- ж ], [ с' - ш ]: inspiration [ in'-a ] t - inspiration ], graph [ φ'-a ] t - graph [ fl '-y ], speed [ b'-a ] t - speed [ bl'-y ], le [ n'-a ] t - le [ pl '-y ], gree [ m'-a ] t - gree [ ml'-y ], kr [ t'-a ] t - [ h-y ], xo [ d'-a ] t - ho [ xy ], won i'-a ] t - won [ xy ], but [ c'-a ] t - but [ wy ]. In some verbs in the formation of the form 1 liter. singular the finite [ t '] alternates with [` w' ] : return [ t'a- ] m - return [ w'-y ], transform t'-a ] m - transformation , short [ t'-a ] m - short [` sh'-y ].

Finally, in United States there are so-called isolated verbs that do not relate to either I or II conjugation and unite in their paradigm the endings of different conjugations. Isolated verbs are characterized by a special relationship of bases or special end systems: to be built , to ( xia ), want , run , honor , is , get boring , give , create , be (and also forget , get , sell and other verbs with components , -send , -beat ), go , go. The conjugation of isolated verbs is given in Table. 39.

Table 39. Conjugation of isolated verbs

Infinitive

Currently

Elapsed time

Number

Face

Form

Number

Gender

Form

be built

units

1

-

units

m.

2

-

.

zijdi-l-a-c

3

is building

Wed

many

1

-

many

2

-

3

zizhd-ut-sya

churn

units

1

-

units

m.

swell-n-th

2

-

.

swap-l-a-c

3

unsettled

Wed

swell-l-o-c

many

1

-

many

swell-n-i-c

2

-

3

unsettled

run

units

1

run-y

units

m.

beige-l

2

beige

.

beja-l-a

3

beige

Wed

Beja-l-o

many

1

Beige

many

beja-l-i

2

beige

3

running-ut

want

units

1

hoch-y

units

m.

want-l

2

hoch-eish

.

want-l-a

3

Wanted

Wed

want-l-o

many

1

hot-im

many

want-and-and

2

Hot-Hit

3

hot-yat

honor

units

1

Things

units

m.

Honor-L

2

Th-Thouse

.

honors

3

Thurs-it

Wed

honoring

many

1

Things

many

cht-l-i

2

Things

3

Thu-yat ( and Th-ut )

is

units

1

e-m

units

m.

e-l

2

e-sh

.

e-n-a

3

e-st

Wed

e-l-o

many

1

e-im

many

e-n-i

2

eat

3

unit

give

units

1

Yes-m

units

m.

yes-l

2

Yes-sh

.

da-l-a

3

yes-st

Wed

da-l-o

many

1

dad-im

many

da-i-i

2

dad-ite

3

dad-ut

be

units

1

bud-y

units

m.

would-l

2

Bud-Eat

.

would-l-a

3

wont

Wed

would-l-o

many

1

bud-let

many

would-n-and

2

bud-ete

3

bud-ut

go

units

1

u-y

units

m.

ride-l

2

eat

.

go-la-a

3

eat

Wed

go-l-o

many

1

eat

many

go-l-and

2

eat

3

ut-ut

go

units

1

id-y

units

m.

Shel

2

eat-eat

.

sh-l-a

3

id-et

Wed

sh-l-o

many

1

id-em

many

sh-l-i

2

go-eet

3

id-ut

Comment: The verbs to be built and to be swept are not used in forms 1 and 2 liters. To the verb to be , besides the forms of the future prime time, the forms of the present time also belong to 3 liters. units and many pl. - accordingly is and are. The form is is widely used not only in the value of 3 liters. singular, but also in the meaning of all other persons. and many pl. The form is is used in scientific, official or archaic speech: Teaching and teaching are means of education (L. Tolstoy).

Variant forms of verbs appear as a result of the interaction of verbs of different classes and groups. In some cases they are characterized as normative and stylistically identical, in others - as normative, but possessing stylistic or semantic differences, in the third - as not conforming to the norms of the United States literary language. Verbs with a productive basis ratio more often affect the verbs of non-productive groups, but it is also possible to influence verbs with an unproductive relationship of the stem to the verbs of productive classes.

Class I verbs affect the verbs of group 1.1a, resulting in the appearance of variant forms of verbs of this group with the basis of the present tense on [ aj ] : < ( alch-y , alchut and alka [ j-y ], alka [ jy ] m ), shine , sprinkle , listen , glaze , move , dribble , rivet , click , flap , scoop , cackle , hover , wave , throw , to rush , purr , moo , splash , rinse , sprinkle , puff scour , whistle , poke , whip , whine , draw , shovel , tweak.

For many verbs of group I, 1a, the forms formed according to the pattern of class I verbs are spoken. In some cases, variant forms differ semantically. For example, the verb move in the meaning of move from place to place, move forms forms with the basis of the present tense on [ aj ], and in the sense of "to set in motion, to motivate" - with a base on hissing. Semantic differences also have variant forms of verbs sprinkle , drip , rivet , throw. Beyond the literary norm are forms with the basis of the present tense on [ aj ] of verbs click , cackle , rush , whip.

Class IV verbs affect the verbs of group IVa, as a result of which the verbs of this group can retain -yu - ( strengthen - crepe in the past tense) and hardened ). This effect is felt by almost all the verbs of group IVa, but most consecutively retain the suffix -yu - based on the past tense unapproach verbs of group IVa in the form of mr. ( horned , loaded ). Stylistically, the variant forms of m. of the following verbs of group IVa: with the components -beat ( of - , for - ), -light , -throw ( in - , under - , from - , by - , poll - , nispro - , c - , from - and all returnable verbs with this root ), hang , get stuck , wilt , die , die , go down dirty , die , flinch , snooze , flop , , chill , sour , get stronger , stick , freeze , fade , become wet , shut , fizz , nibble , smell , swell , open , snort , weaken , blind , dry , shy , go silent , -broken ( i - , from - , races and all return verbs with this root ), go out in the sense of "go out" , fade in the meaning of "spoil" , wheeze , wither. Variant forms with the suffix -yu - in the past tense. are possible , but forms predominate without -yu -.

The variant forms of the present tense, according to the pattern of the verbs of group II, 1a, form the verbs of class II rust ( rusty , rust ), recover , weaken , disgust , disgust , grow old ( >) : rusts-rusts and rusts. The forms of these verbs, formed on the model of an unproductive group, are obsolete, colloquial or non-normative.

Verbs of the first class test , torture , punish , bind , bind , specify can also form variant forms with the basis of the present tense on [ yj ] (as in the verb of group 1, 2 paint ) : experience - experience and tested , obligate - oblige and oblige. Variant forms of the first class verbs with the present-day basis on [ yj ] are used in high or book style.

As a rule, verbs that form variant conjugated forms also have variant attributive forms.

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