Deerpriocre - Modern US Literary Language

§ 16. The gerundive

The gerundive is a verbal form that combines the properties of the verb and adverb. The verbal property of the verbal participle is the value of the process characteristic, expressed in terms of the type and pledge (real) - in the absence of categories of inclination and the person. Like the adverb, the gerundive has no forms of inflection. The gentile designates the side effect, the additional action with the main, basic, expressed verb-predicate ( noticing , smiled, drawing , humming ).

The belonging of the verbal participle to the verb is expressed in the categories of the species and the pledge. Depending on the type of the verb, the form of which is the verbal participle, distinguish between gerundes of the imperfect type ( recognize - recognizing ) and the perfect type ( recognize - recognizing ). In gerunds formed by reflexive verbs, the postfix -sya ( confess - confessing ) is retained. The value of time in gerunds is not morphologically expressed, but depending on the type of the verb it can express certain time values. The verbal participles of an imperfective kind usually denote the simultaneity (in a broader sense, the overlap) of a process called the process that is called the definable form of the verb ( said , worried, say , worrying, speaking, , worried ). The verb participle of a perfect species most often denote the process named by them as preceding to the process being determined ( crouching , talking) , less often - as simultaneous ( went , thinking about ) or as a follow-up ( went out , slamming the door ). The temporal values ​​of the verbal participles are often due to the lexical meaning of the verb and depend on the context.

The use of the gerund for predicative forms is only permissible if the subjects of the gerund and the predicate are the same ( Gaining speed , the train has departed from the station ).

In the presence of certain conditions, for example, the absence of dependent words, the species-time values ​​of the gerunds are lost and the gerunds approach the adverbs ( silently , clowning , reluctantly , etc.).

Education of gerunds . The verbal participles of the imperfect species are formed from the present-day basis by the addition of the suffix -a <( -y ), while the final pair-solid consonants alternate with the corresponding soft ones: [ c ] -out - not [ c'-a ], [ p ] -out - 6e ( p'-a ] (orthograph carrying , taking ), as well as drawing, reading, reading, crying, lying. Verbs of group VIII with components -diviate , -state , -know form the gerunds from the bases - giving [ j ], -value [ j ], -state [ j ] (- giving , - knowing , -state ). A number of imperfective verbs along with the verbal participles with the suffix -a () and the verbal participles with the suffix ( I do not know and do not know , not having and not having ) also form a participle with the suffix -yes ( -years ) ( stealth , regretting , going out , playfully , going , being ), but these formations, except being , are colloquial or colloquial.

There are no grammatical restrictions for the formation of verbal participles with imperfective verbs, but many such verbs do not form a verbal participle or form them rarely. For example, unmotivated verbs of the fourth class ( bend , clench , sink ), verbs of unproductive groups 1,1a with the basis of the present tense for sibilant or labial in combination with [ l '] ( shave , knit , lick , plow , sling ), group IVa on the -path ( fade , get stuck , glohnut ), group X, 1 ( pull , can , turn ), group X, 2c ( move , rub ), verbs of different groups with a non-logistic basis of the present tense ( lie , wait , neigh , , pour , crumple ).

The verbal participle of the perfect form is formed from the basis of the past tense by attaching the suffix -v ( -shy , -shi ). The suffixes -v and -shy are used in the formation of gerunds from the stem to the vowel: with the suffix -b they form verbal participles without postfix - ( meet - meeting , escape - by running ) ; by means of the suffix -shy form the verbal participles with the postfix-i ( touch - by touching , rise - ). The suffix -shi is used in the formation of gerunds from the stem to the consonant ( render - rendered , shake - shook ). Some verbs of the perfect form, along with the gerunds, also adverquate with the suffix -a -c , , -sh > () from the basis of the present tense: seeing , incline , sweeping , bringing.

A number of verbs form variant forms of verbal participles. There are two types of such variability, due, first, to the presence of variants of the foundations of the present or past tense, with verbs of this type inherent in the verbs of the verbal participles; secondly, the use of suffixes that are not characteristic of the verbal verbs of this species.

1. The variant forms of the verbal participles of the imperfect species form the verbs of group I, 1a, having variant bases of the present tense: sprinkle-splash-splashing and splashing-splashing; to scour, roam, gnaw, and yaw, to yawn. These are the verbs shine , listen , shake , steal , hover , wave , throw , splash , rinse , whine , tweak.

For the greater part of such verbs in use, the gerunds formed from the basis of the present tense on [ aj ] are preferable. Only from the basis of [su] do the verb participates move , desire.

Variant forms of verbal participles of perfect form can form verbs without postfix -s both with the suffix , and with the suffix ( lose - having lost and having lost , screaming - screaming and screaming ), and the verbal participles with the suffix -show are spoken or colloquial. The verbs of group IVa, having variant bases of the past tense with the suffix -yu - and without it, also form variant forms of the verbal participles ( wither - withered and withered , freeze - frozen and frozen ). The verbs of the group X, 2c die , lock , grind , stretch form the variant forms of the verbal participles of the perfect kind: dying and died , locking and shutting , rastering and rastering , after and extended.

2. A number of imperfective verbs (usually when used with negation) form gerunds from the basis of the past tense with the suffix -in : ( not ) being and ( not ) being , ( not ) knowing and ( not ) knowing , ( not ) having and ( not ) having , but they are conversational and usually of little use. Similarly, some verbs of the perfect form form the verbal participle of the present time with the suffix -a (). These are many verbs of class V ( returning , noticing ), verbs of group I, 16 ( hear ), group II, 1a ( seeing ), as well as some verbs of non-productive groups V, VI and X with the basis of the present time on the consonant ( bring - bringing , bring - bringing , sweep - substitutions ). More often verbal participles of the perfect species with the suffix -a () are more common than the corresponding forms on -v ( , -shi ) ( bringing , going , finding , leading ) .

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