Degrees of comparison of adverbs - Modern US literary language

§ 2. Degrees of comparison of adverbs

Adverbs formed from qualitative adjectives can have two degrees of comparison - comparative and excellent ( fast - faster , faster than all ), which denote differences in the degree of manifestation of the action. Unlike the forms of comparison of adjectives that define a noun ( your arguments are more convincing ), the forms of comparing adverbs are defined by verbs ( Your statement looked more convincing ). When covering all forms of adverbs, a third degree of comparison can be distinguished - a positive one, which recognizes the initial form of adverbs, although this form calls the quality of the action outside comparison with the manifestation of the corresponding quality in another action ( liberally edit ), as zero flection and zero suffix are recognized in comparison with other forms of words.

The form of the comparative degree means that the quality is inherent in this action to a greater extent than to another or to another ( I thanked him mentally , and he next went in the dark . M. Sholokhov). Simple and complex forms of comparative degree in adverbs are formed in the same way as in adjectives, by means of suffixes -ee ( -y ), -e , -he: fascinatingly (positive degree) - ( is more interesting ( captivating ) (simple form of comparative degree) - more entertaining (complex form of comparative degree) is simply - simpler , subtly - thinner. Adverbs of the category of state have only comparative degree forms ( Steel more boring , colder ).

Adverbs far and early have two forms of comparative degree: next - next and before - earlier. Adverbs many and small have special forms of comparative degree: more - more , less than - less.

To the forms of a comparative degree with the suffixes -e ( -y ), -e , -che the prefix , which increases the degree of the characteristic ( less say - smaller say ).

In addition to these suffixes, the comparative degree of adverbs can be formed using the words more or less and the initial (initial) adverb form: more (< i ) it is clear , more ( less ) intelligible.

The form of an excellent degree means that quality is inherent in this action to the highest degree, i.e. more than the rest ( perform best ). Simple forms of superlative adverbs can be formed from the basis of a simple form of superlative adjectives with the suffix -e ( obediently ask ), but in modern United States they are almost not used, so as they have an archaic tinge: He was always given the darkest work , and he hard , painstaking performed (E. Evtushenko). Usually, complex forms of superlative adverbs are used, formed by a combination of the form of the comparative degree and the pronouns of everything, like most , look best.

In the same role, the word combinations are the most or least with the original adverbial form ( most fully , most appropriate, least clearly , least available ).

Sometimes in the scientific literature the opinion is expressed that the degree of comparison in adverbs is not inflexible, but the word-formative category and that forms of comparative degree in general constitute a "special immutable group of words" (which? fictitious, intranariate or some other?), characterized by its semantics and syntactic properties - the ability to enter into syntactic relations not only with verbs, but also with nouns. This statement seems too categorical, and the arguments themselves are not entirely convincing, since there are no examples of the use of forms of comparative degree with nouns.

Qualitative adverbs, like other categories, are recognized as morphologically unchangeable words. Comparison of the generalized-lexical meaning of these adverbs and the forms of comparison forms formed from them does indeed reveal certain semantic differences, consisting in varying degrees of manifestation of the characteristic ( convincingly - more convincing - more convincingly ). However, the categorical grammatical meaning of all these forms is identical - the sign designation (in this case, the action). All these forms equally fulfill the role of circumstance in the sentence: I earnestly request you , the request must be made more convincing , I beg of you. Therefore, the recognition of the forms of the degrees of comparison adverbs are independent lexemes and their allocation from adverbs are based only on the basis of some differences in the lexical meaning. If we agree with the position of those who single out, on a semantic basis only, the degree of comparison from the composition of adverbs, recognizing them as independent lexemes, then it is necessary to recognize participles and gerunds as a fact of not form-building, but word-formation and consider them as autonomous parts of speech. It seems more reasonable (as the long-term grammatical tradition confirms) the forms of comparison of adverbs to be recognized as such, not to be singled out as a special group and not to be opposed to dialects proper (and even less to derive from their composition), and specifically stipulating the semantic specificity (the strengthening of the trait) of these forms , leave them in the general system of adverbs.

To show the expediency of such an operation, we give two analogies from the grammatical interpretation in something similar and in some way differing linguistic phenomena. The nouns black , blackening differ from their producing words - from the adjective black and the verb to tarnish the character of the meaning: denigration is a sign, and tarnish - an action associated with any particular objects, black - a sign or action in general, in distraction from certain objects. And this - along with the morphological and syntactic features of both - gives grounds to distinguish them in special parts of speech.

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