Dramaturgy - History of US literature of the XX century


After studying this chapter, the student must:


• The nature of the controversy between innovators and traditionalists & quot ;;

• The role of the play by M. Gorky Egor Bulychev and others and articles About plays in the development of Soviet drama;

• the main features of the dramaturgy. F. Pogodin, A. N. Afinogenov, V. M. Kirshon;

• The value of the song is Sun. V. Vishnevsky Optimistic tragedy for the development of the Soviet theater;

• The variety of drama in the war years ("United States people" by K. M. Simonov, "Invasion" by L. M. Leonova, "Front" by AE Korneichuk);

• The main themes of the dramatic underground (plays by MA Bulgakov, AP Platonov, NR Erdman, and others),

be able to

show the artistic originality of the main dramaturgic phenomena of 1930-1950's.

• Explain the harm of the theory of conflictlessness for art in general and for drama in particular;

• to analyze the problems and poetics of the dramaturgy of Leonid Leonov;


concepts "literary process", "realism", "monumental drama", "psychological theater", "conditional theater";

• The skills of analyzing artistic texts in a sociocultural and literary context.

Theater and dramaturgy of the 1930s-1950s, like all the art of this period, developed in complex, contradictory conditions. On the one hand, the enthusiasm of the first five-year plans, the heroic atmosphere of the "unfolded offensive of socialism along the whole front", the heroics and patriotism of the people in the war years prompted the search for new forms, a style that meets the time, a rapprochement with life and new heroes. It was necessary to achieve the synthesis of heroic reality and a concrete human character, the image of a large through a small, macrocosm of history through the microcosm of an individual person. On the other hand, over the decades over artists hung "an ominous shadow" party leadership of culture.

Theater and drama fell under the dictates of the policy of "prohibitions and permits" from the Main Repertory Committee. Resolution of the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR of October 7, 1930. "On the improvement of the theatrical business" suggested that theaters and playwrights further bring their creativity "to the requirements of socialist construction", not deviate "from the main line of ideological struggle". Control over the outlook also extended to the specificity of art, which hindered free creativity. The rigid framework of the "normative aesthetic of socialist realism" Artistic searches were restrained. Strengthening towards the end of the 1940s. Stalin's cult of personality led to an involuntary "correction" in the assessment of individual social phenomena, the actions of characters, to a certain degree of conformism.

Tough ideological censorship did not allow many remarkable plays to be printed and put on stage, which returned to us only during perestroika. After the discussion of the 1930s. about satire, during which the prevailing view was that "we do not need the satire, it is harmful to the workers 'and peasants' statehood," that it is convenient for her to hide behind the class enemy " (V. Blum), the satirical comedies of MA Bulgakov, Yu. K. Olesha, IE Babel were removed from the repertoire. At the stage of general rehearsals, in the Moscow Art Theater and the State Guesthouse, a comedy was banned. F. Erdman's "Suicide". Have not seen the light of the ramp Batum and Adam and Eve M. A. Bulgakova, Scharmanka and "14 red huts". AP Platonov.

In the dramatic work of the post-war years, the joy of liberation, the bitterness of losses, the greatness of the heroic deed of the Soviet people, the pride of the domestic "science of winning", on the one hand, and the glorification of the "outstanding commander of all time" JV Stalin - on the other. Along with the desire to comprehend the events of the war, to tell the harsh truth about the grave consequences of it in the fate of the country and individuals, some playwrights went superficially and lightly to portray a difficult time, neglecting the real complexities of life. In the dramaturgy of this period, the trend of the "fading of the conflict", especially in plays on peaceful topics, was particularly noticeable. Made itself felt in the late 1930's. and interrupted for the time of the war, this trend in the postwar period by the efforts of some theoreticians and practitioners of drama was elevated to the rank of the theory of conflictlessness. The decision of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) "On the repertoire of dramatic theaters and measures for its improvement (1946).

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