EVGENY ABRAMOVICH BORATINSKY (1800-1844)
As a result of studying this chapter, the student must:
- know the uniqueness of the "poetry of thought" Boratynsky; typology and structure of the elegy; the principles of cyclization in the book of verses "Twilight";
- be able characterize the methods of psychological analysis in the lyrics;
- own skills of analyzing the lyrical work.
E. A. Boratynsky is called the "poet of thought". He is at the forefront of United States philosophical lyrics, as he made fundamental questions of being one of the first subjects of research in the lyrics: he sought to understand what a person is and what the essence of his psychological states is, what is the logic of historical processes, what is truth, what is thought and how she lives .
Boratynsky is a poet, applied to the creation of which for the first time the word "explores" is used. The research principle, the ability to reveal the laws of the development of the human spirit, the ability to approach one's personal spiritual experience as an object of cognition, look at it from the outside, separate it from oneself, conduct a scrupulous analysis of a particular state of the soul and give its artistic picture called the main features of the lyrics Boratynsky.
There are three stages in Boratynsky's work. The first (1818-1824) is marked by gravitation towards the aesthetics of the "Arzamas" circle of poets, school "harmonic accuracy". The second (1824-1835) is characterized by a fascination with Schelling, a transition to philosophical subjects. The third period (1833-1844) is called the heyday of the poet's philosophical poetry.
Boratynsky's first significant work is elegy " Finland (1820), which became a "visiting card" poet: contemporaries and addressed to him - singer of Finland & quot ;. In this elegy there are many more traditional ones: for example, Ossian's motives. Affects in it the experience of the historical elegy Batyushkov: a singer who contemplates a severe northern landscape, reflects on the impoverishment of human nature, about the left heroics. For both poets, the greatness of the human spirit is in the past. However, if Batyushkov heroes and their exploits continue to live in the poet's dream, then Boratynsky all gives iodine a sign of denial, oblivion, and end (and this is already the effect of the mature poet):
The invocation shield has died, the scalp's voice is not heard,
The ignited oak faded,
The lush wind was blown away by solemn cliques;
Sons do not know about the deeds of the fathers,
And in the ashes of their gods
Frozen faces lie! & lt; ... & gt;
Your trail has disappeared in your home country.
The mature Boratynsky as a tragic mistake of humanity will perceive excessive confidence in the mind at the expense of feeling. This, in his opinion, leads to the fact that the poetic word turns out to be unclaimed, and consequently, the "departure of the poet" from the world. It's no coincidence in the cycle "Twilight The poem "The Last Poet" is included. It is noteworthy that antiquity will be thought of by Boratynsky as a crisis era, since it is precisely at this time that the disintegration of harmonic unity occurs, the alienation of man from the natural world begins.
Enters the elegies Finland and the theme of the modern generation:
What is our feat, what is the glory of our days,
What is our windy tribe?
Oh, everything will disappear in its abyss in the abyss of years!
For all, one law is the law of annihilation,
I hear mysterious greetings in everything
The promised oblivion!
In these lines, a verdict is heard, handed down to its generation by another poet - Lermontov. Consonance is precisely due to the fact that both poets speak of their generation as doomed to oblivion, and show that the consciousness of their contemporary is tragically bifurcated. This topic of the duality of the consciousness of modern man for the first time powerfully sounded precisely in the lyrics of Boratynsky . In the elegy Disperses the sadness of the peers ... (1821), the lyrical hero simultaneously resides in two opposite states: the outer - noisy fun in the circle of friends, drunken oblivion; inner - sadness, loneliness, detachment from what is happening. The external and internal states of the lyrical hero are simultaneous; they are not simply opposed by Boratynsky - they are not reducible in principle. Aspiration to drown the mind in the glass is caused by a thirst for oblivion, an attempt to overcome that inner state that determines the personality of the lyric hero - the state of "sadness." However, the attempt to break out of inner concentration, to live "outside oneself," to merge with others is doomed already because the inner is that is the true (natural) property of man.The pivotal nature of the lyric hero's consciousness is conditioned by the main artistic device-the reception of the antithesis (one of Boratynsky's favorites, and the antithesis in the poet's artistic world is more than a method of knowing the world). Already in the first line, the sadness and "spree", the antithesis is enhanced by an oxymoronic combination of "sadness of feasts". In the second stanza, internal bifurcation receives a deeper motivation through the inclusion of landscape moments (the antithesis "silence of the world of nature is the wild joy of people"), as a result, the human world is opposed to the natural world, the person falls out of the general order.
The third stanza again sounds "I", replacing "we" the second quatrain. This stanza is a paradoxical result, in it an insoluble contradiction is indicated: the external does not capture the hero, does not become his essence ( joylessly sang with joy ), he is "alien" then, in that he is immersed, he is internally removed from his external "I", he retains the capacity for introspection, dismembering the state of mind.
Why is it impossible to achieve the desired: oblivion and fun? The final aphorism (and Boratynsky is characterized by the accentuated aphorism of the endings: "One's sadness, the despondency is one" // Sad feeling can ") shows the impossibility of overcoming the original properties of the person, the inner nature of man. They are commanded by man "fate," fate.
Double, contradictory in the lyrics Boratynsky appears not only lyrical "I", but also someone else's consciousness. In the poem How much you in a few days// Lived, felt ... " bifurcated female consciousness. The final lines ( "As Magdalene, you cry, // And, like a mermaid, you laugh!") Paint an image combining heterogeneous beginnings, rushing between extremes , which is the cause of devastation, of life's satiety. According to Boratynsky, the soul, remaining "in the melancholy of spiritual emptiness", is doomed to bifurcation, throwing, searching for its true "I".
One of the favorite genres of Boratynsky is elegy. The first stage of the poet's work was held under the sign of this genre. At this time, two varieties of the latter develop in parallel: an intimate (psychological) and a meditative elegy. The first type is represented in such poems as "Razverenie", "Recognition"; the second is "Truth", "Skull".
Boratynsky's analytical psychology is based on the fact that the poet is, as it were, removed from his "I", looks at his spiritual world from outside, gives an artistic picture of the different states of the soul. He decomposes them, conducts scrupulous analysis, maybe that's why even the names of poems ("Hopelessness", "Fun and Sorrow", "Faith and Unbelief", "Anguish", "Despondency", etc.) are a list of different feelings and internal states. Thought exposes hard analysis to those things that at first glance seem to be indecomposable. This feature of the poetic thought of Boratynsky Vyazemsky called "grating". However, it was such an elegy of Boratynsky that impressed Pushkin, who considered them to be the tops of the genre. Here is Pushkin's evaluation of contemporary works: "Boratynsky is a charm and a miracle; "Recognition" is perfection. After it, I will never print my elegies ...
At the core of such elegies as Reasoning ("Do not tempt me unnecessarily ..."), "The bait of affectionate speeches ...", "Recognition" ("Do not pretend to tenderness of tenderness") and others, lies a love experience, but Boratynsky found a new circle of emotions caused by this feeling. In Disagreements & quot ;, Confessions love is in the past. The suffering has already been experienced, the pain from the painful feeling subsided. As S. Bocharov noted, "Boratynsky builds a paradoxical situation of a love elegy without love"; the poet does not reflect on what was (in a typical elegy key), but over what has become. In Separation ("We parted, for a moment, fascination ...") (1820) analyzes the psychological state of the hero reminiscing of his former love, and in this lyrical meditation his former and present feelings are naturally reduced. In Reasoning (1821), Recognition (1823,1832) the attempts of a woman to resurrect a feeling give rise to the monologue of the lyric hero. Both poems begin with a dialogically oriented replica: "Do not tempt me unnecessarily // Return of your tenderness ..." "Do not pretend to me of pretended tenderness; // I do not hide my heart with sadness & quot ;. It's like a snatched piece of conversation, in which there is no replica of the heroine, which brought to life the recognition of the lyric hero. However, in the "Confession", for example, the words of the lyrical monologue are included, they are easily restored, since it is they who have borne woeful reflections, and their lyric hero builds their statement, as if based on its reproaches: "You right, in him (in the heart - I.Yu. ) already no beautiful fire // My love of the original & quot ;; I'm not captivated by the beauty of another, // Dreams of the jealous of the heart removed. " In the poem " The bait of affectionate speeches ... " (1821) the third stanza is organized in this way: there is a sense of dialogue, as the words of the heroine are quoted, but her arguments are immediately refuted as impossible, false:
You are dear to me, you say,
For an extra prisoner you more,
You are very nice to me, but, alas!
You and other nice ones too.
In love elegies clearly traced the psychological traits of both the hero and the heroine. In a sense, these works are bipartite. She (especially in the poems of the "Ponomarevsky cycle") - a windy, changeable, but at the same time a sweet, affectionate, tender temptress who manipulates the feelings of another. At the heart of her selfish and whimsical love is the vain desire to possess. For her, love is a game, for him - captivity, so the painful memory of the experience is so painful, because again a flushed feeling will overwhelm that state of sleep that the soul has plunged into after suffering. He willed effort prohibits reborn feelings, because disappointment is inevitable, and it will become an unbearable burden for the soul, with such difficulty becoming oblivious. The love ears of Boratynsky are often correlated with Pushkin's novel in verse. " The type of consciousness that Pushkin made the object of the image in "Eugene Onegin", Boratynsky expresses himself in lyrical meditation.
In Boratynsky's lyrics, a paradoxical understanding of mental forgetfulness, rest, sleep, indifference arises. Boratynsky's "sincere cold" - the result of life experience, suffered sufferings, the highest (wise) state of the human soul. A dream is a state of mind that deliberately excludes from its circle everything that can enter into excitement. Peace is a reaction to the overstrain of being. All this is the life-formed ability to be above the event, above everyday worries. Indifferent rich - such a formula is found in the message "Where are you, o Delvig my ...". Analysis of these states of mind Boratynsky carries out in the elegy Two Stakes " (1823). In the first quatrain the basic antithesis is declared: "hope and excitement" - "hopelessness and rest". However, this is the least appreciated opposition; these are two equal opportunities, the choice between which the person himself makes. "Hope and excitement", from the poet's point of view, is the destiny of "boiling young men", when the experience is rigorous has not yet cooled the gusts of the soul when the "knowledge of being" has not yet come. Maturity tends to rest. In that part of the poem where the analysis of the state of "hopelessness and rest" is given, there is a picture of spiritual numbness ( "Save the cold saving // My idle soul" ), strengthened by comparison the living soul with the corpse ( "With my numbness the blessed, // Like the dead bodies from the graves, // The sorcerers with the words awakened, // Stand up with a gnashing of teeth; // So you, having warmed in the soul of desire ... ). Since the poem correlates different stages of a person's life, the image of destiny inevitably arises: first, when it comes to youth, this word accompanies the epithet "mocking", and then the word "fate" transforms into "fate", and this metamorphosis expresses the notion of life as a severe test sent down to the human soul. However, the tragic experience itself, from the point of view of Boratynsky, is necessary. One of the poems begins with such a declaration: "Believe, my dear friend, suffering is necessary for us; // Without experiencing it, one can not understand happiness ... Suffering exacerbates feelings, forms another system of values. Passing through suffering, a person receives the gift to perceive simple and natural human manifestations as particularly significant, acquires a special "taste" to life:
Let the imaginary happiness for the light we are miserable,
Blessed are we poorer, and righteous gods
They were given sensuality, and the feeling was given to us.
In a whole series of poems Boratynsky views his personal destiny as parting with the belief in the possibility of happiness, finding a cold peace, indifference, a conscious fall from the general flow of life ( Life Road (1825), ; Hopelessness ( The desire for happiness was inspired by the gods ... (1823)), etc.). In one of the posthumous articles about Boratynsky it was said that he "did not know how to balance himself with modernity." However, the poet did not aspire to keep pace with the times. When the epoch of Nikolayev's untimeliness came, he chose the position of conscious silence. In one of the letters of the same time, Boratynsky writes: "We will think in silence and leave the literary field Field and Bulgarin ... Let us conclude in our circle, like the first brothers, Christians, possessors of light persecuted in their time, but now triumphant. We will write without printing.
Maybe it will be a good time ". In such internal circumstances, the Twilight cycle was created, which was published in 1842. In the Twilight Boratynsky, according to the accurate definition of NA Melgunov, from the elegiac poet of the person became the elegiac poet of mankind. Twilight - underlined intellectual cycle.
Twilight - a phenomenon unusual against the background of those cycles that existed at that time. As a rule, the work was combined into a cycle, in which either the unity of the theme or the common heroes were viewed. In the "Imitations of the Koran", "Songs about Stenka Razin", "Songs of the Western Slavs" Pushkin is all connected by the unity of the subject matter of the image. In Boratynsky's other, more complex principle of cyclization, reminiscent of polyphony. IM Toibin, for example, believed that "the book is built on the principle of a suite, but not psychological, personal, usually associated with the history of love, and philosophical". It is not accidental that researchers use musical terminology when analyzing the structure of a cycle. A kind of tuning fork that sets the tone for the whole cycle is its name. Boratynsky realizes different meanings of the word "twilight". Twilight Is the name of the arbor in Muranov, in which the poet loved to work. However, first of all the symbolism of sunset worked: the sunset of the year, the decline of one's own life, the decline of civilization ...
A peculiar overture is the opening cycle of the "Strong Message to Prince Pyotr Andreevich Vyazemsky", where the mood and the theme clearly appear, which are then repeatedly embodied in different poems - the theme of the poet and time (the poet yearns for peace , but realizes the impossibility of overcoming the existing gap).
In the cycle, there are three main motifs in different combinations: antiquity and iron century; earthly and heavenly in man; the existence of an artist. Boratynsky has poems so that a constant change in intonations and moods occurs. When the emotional system reaches a tragic tension, suddenly there are ironic, satirical notes. Strikes in the semantic respect of the poem ("The Last Poet", "Signs", "Short-Bearer", "What are you days? ..", "What are the sounds?" By the way ... "," Autumn " ; etc.) Boratynsky surrounds miniatures: initiations, epigrams, poems in the spirit of the ancients ("anthological plays"). For example, the poem " murmur ("Red summer of poison, a fly annoying, that you ...") somewhat discharges the atmosphere of "Twilight", because the unexpected embodiment receives a banal household detail (about molestation of the fly is said in the stylistics of the anthological play). Through similar approximations the eternal correlates with the momentary, the high one with the vain (for example, the poem "Alas, the creator of the non-first forces ..." in relation to the theme of the artist-poet in the general context of "Twilight").
The culmination of the cycle is the poem " Autumn ", where two semantic overtones converge in the general symbolism of twilight: autumn - twilight of nature ("evening of the year"), autumn - twilight in the life of the artist ( ; autumn days "). This convergence is due to the fact that the work of the farmer and the artist's work are contrasted in the poem, the natural and the spiritual are compared. The labor of the farmer (the natural principle) is harmonious, integral; tangible its results:
The sickle is walking. On compressed grooves
The footprints are in shots of brilliant
Il stretch along the stubble, on the carts,
Under the heavy load of hiding,
And the bread riches of gold-golden hail
It rises around a peasant hut.
That's why the atmosphere of contentment and life incarnation reigns here, and the lexical system is focused on the concentration of positive meanings: "the ears are cheerfully smoking," the "warm" warmth in his hut. " Therefore, the future winter does not cause alarm: "Go, winter! On strict days to yourself // The supply of orata is a lot of good ... "
Other fruits reap the "orata of the vital field" - the creator. There is a sense of tragic despair: the poet's word does not find a response. The deepest comprehension of the world deliberately dooms the poet to spiritual isolation. In this connection, Boratynsky speaks of two types of words: one is a "vulgar voice, a broadcaster of the common doom", another is "..." that verb, // What a passionate earthly passed on & quot ;. The crowd responds to them in different ways: the banality sonorous tip in it finds & quot ;, the word of the spiritual worker remains unanswered. The result of Boratynsky's reflections is that the way out to genuine spiritual work condemns the artist to the loss of "joys of the earth". This is the eternal drama of the artist, a spiritual disaster.
A distinctive feature of Boratynsky's creativity is the high intellectuality of his lyrics. Pushkin owns a statement in which the essence of the poet's artistic thinking is very clearly revealed: "He is original, because he thinks.
He would be original and everywhere, for he thinks in his own way, correctly and independently, while he feels strongly and deeply. "
Thought (comprehension of its essence, evolution, incarnation in the word and rooting in the public consciousness) becomes in the lyrics of Boratynsky's self-sufficient theme. The poet is interested in thought as an ontological category. It, according to Boratynsky, exists in itself, as some kind of knowledge inherent in the world, capable with the help of the word to find flesh. However, the thought is not immovable, it lives in time: it transforms, changes, but does not disappear, does not disappear without a trace. About this are such poems as "First thought is embodied in the poem of a concocted poet ...", "All thought and thought, artist poor words ...", "O thought, you are the inheritance of the flower ..." ;, Prejudice and so on
In these works an important role is played by the objective beginning. The basis of the lyrical plot is a detailed comparison or a system of comparisons, metaphors that allow you to "opredmett an abstract category, which is thought. So, in the poem "At first the thought is embodied in the poem of the concatenated poet ..." three successive successive stages of "life" thoughts appear, on the one hand, as a change in the forms in which it is a person (a poem, a novel, a journalism), on the other - as different periods of a woman's life ("young lady", "sophisticated wife", "chatterbox old" ). In fact, this comparison is suggested by the generic specificity of the word - a thought in the United States language of the feminine gender. The thought is dragged, lost, vulgarized precisely because it turns out to be interpreted and infinitely embodied in different forms. It loses its novelty, turns into banality, and therefore loses itself. Actually this is the death of thought as such. However, according to Boratynsky, the very death of thought is the birth of new knowledge. This view is plastically expressed in a miniature Oh, thought, you are the inheritance of a flower ... . The poet thinks about it in the poem " Prejudice ", which deals with beliefs, changing world outlooks, basic ideas about the world, which determine the development of human civilization as a whole. Old Temple - these are the ideas that formed at a time when a person had not yet separated himself from the natural world, when he did not trust himself completely with reason, when he had a common language with nature ( Signs ), New ideas about the world, the new pillars - on the mind, and not on the feeling - give rise to a new truth, a new picture of the world, but the former sense of kinship with everything natural is reflected in what is commonly called prejudice. To understand them is to understand the past of humanity, to realize our present. This is the reason for the final quatrain:
Abstain from a young force!
Do not disturb his days;
But a decent grave,
As he falls asleep, give the ancestor.
So Boratynsky in the lyrical poem expresses one of the fundamental philosophical ideas about the infinity of the process of cognition.
L. Ya. Ginzburg so formulated the main theme of Boratynsky's late lyrics: "... a tragic self-awareness of a person who is isolated, divorced from common values. This is the social meaning of the problems of the late Boratynsky, its historical concreteness - for it was the fate of the broken generation. " Boratynsky was particularly keenly aware of this breakdown, because he experienced a catastrophic collapse of hopes for the future as a young man when he was punished for the committed offense. Since then, the feeling of fate, an unfairly blind fate, has not left him. That is why the mystery of the late Boratynsky was the poem " Pyroscaphe (a pyroscap is a steamboat). It expresses an atypical perception of the life path for the poet, since there is hope in the soul of the lyrical hero. However, as the researchers rightly note, the time of creation (and the poem was written shortly before his death, in 1844) imposes a tragic reflection on those optimistic mood overtones that are palpable in the "Pyroscaphe", because hope has resurfaced in the soul of a premonition of death.
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