Features of the composition. The phenomenon of "mood prose"
There is a contradiction in compositional constructions of Chekhov: with completeness of the artistic structure, his works are characterized by open finals. He cheerfully noticed that he would call that writer a genius who would really find New interchanges: "Hero or get married, or get stuck. There is no other way! Chekhov himself emerges from a difficult situation in the highest degree witty, with the ingenuity of genius: he leaves his heroes at a crossroads, at the most difficult time for them, makes the endings of stories and stories open, open to life.
Meanwhile, when the events are interrupted, as if on a half-phrase, the author's idea, the author's idea of the work by Chekhov is always faultless and is fully expressed.
But for what reasons does this feeling of complete thought arise? This issue is especially important. The answer is to be found in the fact that the author's idea passes through Chekhov's full circle of development, due to the special construction of the artistic structure, organized according to the dialectical principle: a-b-a1 ( thesis - antithesis - synthesis). Synthesis of the same Chekhov always - the structurally ordered treatment of the finale to the initial stage of the whole figurative system, the reader's return to the sources of the process of intensive transformation of the topics outlined in the exposition. This is not an identical repetition, but every time a new stage (final) of the self-movement of the artistic idea, which manifests itself and is expressed in complex and at the same time ordered cohesion, the associative links of the elements of the system with each other and common structural entity.
More often than not, the image-character turned out to be the center of attention of the researchers, turning into its opposite in its antithesis, "antithesis," when, in the denouement, there appears, according to Chukovsky, a new interpretation of the hero and the collision he is experiencing. However, it was a fixation of a particular: the process of the dialectical formation of the whole system was disappearing, where the final was the result of the development, the transformation of the through ideas that permeate the work from end to end.
To such a prose, the notion of themes in the literary interpretation of it. It is more suitable for its broad art history interpretation, more flexible and versatile than the interpretation of the subject as an object of the image, the subject of the narrative. In this case, the very concept of a topic becomes deeply dialectical. This is a self-sufficient clear image and at the same time a dynamically explosive element. Theme - and push, and approval. Concentrating the energy of the movement, the theme determines the nature of the movement and the direction. Despite its main property - relief, - it has the greatest ability for various metamorphoses.
Two significant points attract attention in this definition, firstly, independence, inner completeness, clarity of the topic, its emotional and semantic significance. Semantic in the sense that in the end all artistic expression in any kind of art is the aesthetically realized sense and thought of the author, connected with the comprehension of reality and man.
Secondly, the topic is treated here as a self-contained element that has the property of distinctness, recognizability, but possesses, however, the ability to develop, to transformations, to reincarnations in accordance with the overall integrity of the work and with its inner content. Similar phenomena are observed in Chekhov's prose, where the same principles of construction can be singled out: repeatability, a return to previously stated provisions, to distinctly shaped images that carry a certain emotional and semantic content with the subsequent development and development of this content. Take, for example, Chekhonte's masterpieces "The death of an official" or "Thick and thin": in both cases they are just a few details that appear again and again to the reader, but in their movement, transformation, changes.
The essence of this writing is that Chekhov composes an artistic structure of a few elements capable of deployment, to an ever fuller expression of the content embedded in them. (This regularity is also associated with the substantial uniqueness of Chekhov's artistic details, or details, they are, as a rule, repetitive, which is not always fixed by the researchers.) Development in such cases goes on not extensive, but intense. There is not an abundance of details, but they are not needed here. Each element takes on as much of the logic of the whole, i.e. of the entire artistic system, as well as from the logic of its own content. Here everything is expedient and necessary. There are no gaps, nothing superfluous. It is such a compact system that Michelangelo's idea of the true perfection of an artistic creation is quite applicable to it. From the sculpture, successfully executed, as the artist says, no piece should be beaten, even if it slides from a high mountain.
Another feature of the Chekhov compositional constructions is that the author does not operate on separate topics, but on structural blocks, i. those certain emotional-imaginative entities that receive through motion. For example, a story of tragic content Sleep want is nothing more than the repetition of the same structural integrity, from which the idea of the story grows, and the psychological motivation for the insane thought of the exhausted teenage girl, her desire to get rid of her terrible state by killing a child. A flashing lamp, a green spot and shadows on the ceiling; the child's crying cry; agonizing condition half asleep, half-witted; a monotonous song that is barely audible purring through Varka's drowsiness - these are the constituents general structural unity of the work, appearing in the exposition and then repeated several times in the story.
At the first moment, the exposition is perceived as a simple description of the miserable situation in which the action slowly unfolds, and the state of the heroine of the story, exhausted by Varka's insomnia. Then a long period of repetition and development of the exposure material begins. Varka painfully struggles with sleep, painful visions gradually seize it, specific details, appearing again and again, acquire the qualities of a living creature participating in its fate: "The green spot and shadows from the pantaloon and diaper fluctuate, and soon regain control of her brain. "
The finale gathers in one focus all the images of the girl's painful visions, her half asleep dreams and gives the last push to the movement of her thought, leading to a tragic outcome. Varka is looking for a force that binds her, presses her, prevents her from living. Finally, exhausted and tensely peering at the blinking spot on the ceiling (just the next repetition, the basis for this psychological gesture-the gesture: the green spot and the shadows, "stare into the eyes of" Varke and "fog"), listening to the unceasing scream, she understands who the real cause of her suffering is - a child! Here is the enemy that prevents her from living, he must be destroyed, then you can sleep, sleep - the only thing she aspires to. And the last stage of this movement: "Laughing, winking" and threatening the green spot with your fingers, Varka creeps up to the cradle " and, strangling the child, "quickly lies on the floor, laughs with joy ... and after a minute sleeps already as hard as dead."
But even more terrible is the awakening left outside the narrative. Chekhov's contrast is the strongest means to which he often resorts (here: laughter is murder), is born at times not only in the clutches and connections of the art fabric itself, but also in the relationship of "extra text", as it stimulates, provokes the imagination of the reader. However, this horror of cruelty and pain that awaits the girl in front is no longer the subject of artistic descriptions, besides the structure of the novel is completed, closed by a logical outcome resulting from the whole so naturally and consistently unfolding compositional system.
Increased expression, emotionality of Chekhov's works lies in the fact that the rapid dynamics of ideas receiving vigorous and purposeful development is taken in a clear structural framework, as a rule, of the compositional ring. The reader can immediately feel how a powerful flow of ideas suddenly returns to its source, to the exposure by the principle of poetic identical or variable stanzas, so the culmination, explosive wave of feeling appears in Chekhov not in the middle of the plot movement, This usually happens, but more often in the finals.
And the material presented in the exposition undergoes such changes in the development process, such tense transformations that in the end of the narrative comes often to the opposite, to the negation of its former content.
This happens with many of Chekhov's characters. This is the most important principle of the writer's characterology. Examples are: Laevsky ("Duel"), from the egocentric transformed into ready for selfless labor and compassion for man; the flint-sectarian Yakov Terekhov ("Murder") after the experiences of hard labor in katorga found out, finally, true faith and reaches out to people to give them to her; Nikitin, terrified by what happened to him ( Literature Teacher ); Gurov, sincerely fell in love at the very last moment, when life has already gone under the slope ( Lady with a dog "). Expressive double reverse the move in the re-alignment of the aspirations of the heroes is carried out in the story "Three Years": Laptev ns finds in the soul the former feeling of love for Julia Sergeyevna, she, indifferent at the time of the betrothal, passionately attached to her husband and sincerely fell in love with him.
What is observed in the characters, in the plot twists and turns of stories and stories, is the general law of the Chekhov composition. In the story of "Seizure friends and students go to St. Pereulok, where brothels are located. The narration opens with a picture of the newly dropped first, white, fluffy snow, creating a poetic mood. The sad story of the student Vasiliev's adventures ends with the state of terror he has experienced and his angry retort: "And how can snow fall into this alley! .." The ring frame in such cases emphasizes the rapid movement of the artistic idea, its transformation, its sharp transformation in the finale.
Nothing similar in expressiveness, in terms of the power of artistic achievements, did not know the literary experience of the past. All attempts in this genre, starting with the German Romantics with their search for reprisal, i.e. repetitions of the same material after another, led, according to the observation of researchers, to a sad outcome: to the destruction, erasure, erosion of the plot and plot. The same thing happened with the experimenters of the XX century. (Aldous Huxley with the novel "Counterpoint", Andrei Bely with narratives called the author "Sonata"), and this is natural: in a prose narrative, every event is already legalized by the fact that it happened, and all subsequent vicissitudes of action go their own way, their not to turn back, without causing a sense of artificiality and authoritarian arbitrariness. It is possible that Chekhov managed to overcome this insurmountable difficulty before, because his stories are often devoid of a detailed plot, they usually developed a specific plot situation. Even the static of the episode, a separate event, Chekhov managed to impart a dynamic dynamics of internal movement.
However, most often the writer uses repetitions of not separate topics, but, as already mentioned, some kind of "blocks" themes - repetitive emotional-figurative unity, clearly structured ("Work of art", "Dushechka", "I want to sleep", "Fit", "Black monk", "Gusev", "Happiness", etc. .). DD Shostakovich, carefully analyzing the story "Black Monk", claimed that it was created according to the principles of "sonata form", in other words, using a certain, highly distinct musical structure, where, firstly, in the exposition there arises the presentation of two contrasting themes, the dramatic and lyrical in terms of their emotional-figurative content, and, secondly, the process of their formation passes three stages of complex interactions: 1) exposure, 2 ) development (the middle part of the composite structure, developing th theme, set forth in the exposition) and 3) reprise, i.e. repetition of exposure material, usually given in significant dynamic transformations. Chekhov's genius manifested itself in the fact that he managed to apply to the prose the laws of form, as if created by art to express the intense lyrical-dramatic collisions that he developed in many of his stories and stories. In other words, the great discovery of the writer was that he used the principles of musical form in the epic genre of creativity. So it came about under the pen of the United States genius, the prose of moods, or the musical prose, as it is now often determine Chekhov's fiction. Thus, the sensation of musicality, the reader's immersion into the special emotional element of his prose is a consequence of the fact that Chekhov's works are musical in their construction, i.e. according to the principles of the organization of the artistic structure, and not because of "poetic" language, which was often said, and did not come to any encouraging results.
So, a compositional system that combines dramatic and lyrical themes, contrasting "ideas-feelings" in their intense development-interaction, there is a characteristic pattern of Chekhov's compositional constructions, it also notes his tragedy things, for example, the story "Black Monk", and quite "unethical" stories in the stories Pecheneg (with a dramatically sounding theme of maternal love and grief), "Murder", "Seizure", "On the Approach In connection with this, the talk about the "musicality" Chekhov's prose becomes only an occasion for an in-depth study of the very nature of his unique artistic system, reminiscent of the principles of his organization of the lyric or musical composition.
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