Heroes of Soviet plays - The history of US literature of the XX century

Heroes of Soviet plays

Whatever the playwrights wrote about socialist construction, the transformation of the village, the struggle on the ideological front and other topical topics, no matter what positions they take in aesthetic disputes, their artistic quest enriched the drama and theater with new heroes, new discoveries in the field of artistic form. The tendency to psychologism began to prevail.

The evolution in the creativity of H. F. Pogodin - from "Temp" and "Poems about an ax" to the play My friend (1932). Her protagonist, Gregory Gai, the chief of large construction, the commander of the five-year plan, "two-haired Guy", although shown mainly in the production sphere, in a confrontation with the conservatives, the cyniches and even the "Leader" (in this image guessed by the People's Commissar of Heavy Industry Sergo Ordzhonikidze), is not at all a "two-legged party card with a resolution instead of a head". This is a living person who can and suffer, and doubt, and even despair. Even from this day I go out alive. I'm alive, my friends, I'm alive! - he exclaims in one of his monologues is not only because he managed to overcome another unthinkable obstacle in the way of the construction he is building.

"I want to look at the stars, stroke the woman's hand, keep silent ... What are you looking at me, like I'm crazy? Who has the right to make me sick if I want what all healthy people want?

In the play My friend Η. F. Pogodin was clearly exempt from sketchiness, turning to the deep individualization of characters. This trend manifested itself in his play After the ball (1933), dedicated to the people of the collective farm village. She took a worthy place among the best dramatic works on this subject: "Bread" VM Kirshona, Fury Ye. G. Yanovskogo, the dramatization of "Rose Virgin Soil" MA Sholokhov and "Run" V. P. Stavsky.

Complex psychological collisions formed the basis for plays on the intelligentsia, on the difficult overcoming of outdated views, on the painful revision of life positions in the new circumstances, and the search for their place in the socialist transformations. In addition to the already mentioned Fear A. Afinogenov, this topic is devoted to the plays "We will live" BA Lavreneva (1930), Life Calls V.N. Bill-Belotserkovsky (1933), Skutarevsky L. M. Leonova (1934). All of them are written in the genre of socio-psychological drama.

Since the second half of the 1930s. Soviet dramaturgy is peering ever closer into the inner world of a new man, formed in the "everyday life of great buildings", but not a commander and a soldier, but an ordinary soldier. The names of such plays are typical: "Ordinary man"; L. M. Leonova, Tanya AM Arbuzova, Mashenka A. N. Afinogenova, "The guy from our city". K. M. Simonov. To replace the essays, combat reports come lyrical comedies (the most popular of them is the comedy B. Shkvarkin "The Alien Child", written in 1934), the lyrical psychological dramas of Chekhov's sound. They are dedicated to the issues of new ethics, they tell how simple Soviet people are freed from petty philistine feelings and prejudices, from the power of things, as they enter into a great life.

One of the most heartfelt plays of this series - "Tanya" (1938) Alexei Nikolaevich Arbuzov (1908- 1986). This is a play about love, which will become the main theme of the entire work of Arbuzov. All the charm of the play lies in the image of Tanya, young, talented, completely dissolved in her love for Herman. You and I, yes we are with you in a small apartment on the Arbat - this is the world of her dreams at the beginning of the play, the world is infinitely festive, calculated, it seems, for life. Looking to the future, Tanya sees Herman famous designer :

Herman. And you?

Tanya. And I ... I will love you. "

According to the ideas of the time of great battles for socialism, such a heroine was not perceived as a person, and the playwright was betrayed by the betrayal of Herman with her geologist colleague, the business woman Maria Shamanova, the loss of a child that Herman had never learned. The premise of a line from Michelangelo: "... So I was born and was first a modest model of myself to be born again a more perfect creation ... - Arbuzov tried to show the reincarnation of the heroine into a public man who found himself in the selfless, heroic work of a doctor in the far North. However, the logic of the nature of the heroine did not allow to agree with the words about a new understanding of the meaning of life, which she must find in the work. Tanya and in her new life remained the same, not having lost in the "years of wanderings" his spiritual wealth, harmony, cheerfulness, subtlety and sensitivity in feelings. "I did not want to let you lie to me-I loved you too much," she would explain to Herman her silent departure from him, from a happy Arbat past. Throughout his work, AN Arbuzov believed female images of plays by Tanya's character.

The play by AN Afinogenov "Mashenka" (1941) echoes with "Tanya an equally subtle psychological nuance of the character of the main character, the lyrical coloring of the story told in the play. The fourteen-year-old heroine has experienced a lot: the discord between her parents, the death of her father. She did not find at first understanding from her own grandfather, Academician Okayomov, a gloomy cabinet recluse, a grumpy old man. But soon, thanks to her sincerity and generosity of the soul, she finds many new friends. "You are our happiness, Masha," says the geologist Leonid Kareyev, a disciple of Okayomov. - You have filled our lives with yourself, and from this they have become purer, better, more worthy! By the way, he predicted to Okayomov, "not knowing how to be a grandfather", that Mashenka "will enlighten his soul":

A wonderful name. Quiet, homely ... Masha. Masha! Oh, how glad I am for you, Vasily Ivanovich! You for the fullness of life did not have enough granddaughter, a child's scream in the house ... You did not have enough children's hands that would have scattered all your papers from your desk ... You will warm it with your heart, and when it flies into life - you will admire her flight .

Thanks to Masha, the old recluse "goes out into the people", communicates with the youth and overestimates in herself a lot:

"... I studied my parchments for decades, it was my profession ... but I never thought about what being a father or mother is also a profession ... And this profession is a science ... no , the art of nurturing a new generation of citizens. "

The bright, joyful atmosphere of the play makes the process of the reincarnation of the desk scientist not so dramatic as in the play "Fear".

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