§ 23. Different language units in their connections and relationships form a system of language, or a language system. A system in the general scientific plan is usually understood as an organized, ordered set of elements of a known whole (compare Greek sistema - ).
In special linguistic literature, this concept is defined as a whole object consisting of elements that are in reciprocal relations , internally organized set of interrelated and interdependent elements , as "such a logical combination of parts into a single whole, in which each occupies a certain place, due to their mutual connection," is the set of units in which each unit is determined by all other units. " Language as a systemic education is characterized by the same basic, general properties that are inherent in any other complex system.
The system of a language is understood primarily as an organized, ordered by different relations set of language elements, units of language, possible their associations (classes, types, etc.).
To denote the notion of a language system, or a language system, the terms "language engine", "language model", "language mechanism model" and some others.
When defining the concept of a language system, its features such as integrity, the presence of regular relationships and relations between elements are emphasized. The regularity of connections and relations between the elements of the language system presupposes the existence of certain rules for the organization of units of language as elements of the system. According to VM Solntsev, "the system of language is a kind of" pantry ", where the rules are stacked (not in the literal sense, of course) (highlighted by I. - V.I. ) and elements (or units) .
Speaking about the language system, it is necessary to pay attention to the fact that in the linguistic literature this concept is often mixed with the notion of the structure of a language or a language structure. This is manifested, first of all, in the fact that the system of language (in the above understanding) is often called a structure. Sometimes, on the contrary, connections, relations between elements of language are called a system. Similar use of these terms is found in the works of other authors.
Recently, there has been a trend towards a strict delineation of the phenomena under consideration. If the system of a language is usually understood as an organized set of interrelated elements, the structure of a language is usually called the organization of elements in the language system, the existing relations between them, governed by the current rules (cf. stmktura - structure, location, order ).
§ 24. Language as a common system includes the whole variety of language elements - specific units and all kinds of their unions, types, ranks, etc. Different specific associations of linguistic units, bound by the commonality of certain characteristics, enter the general system of language as its particular systems, or subsystems. The system of each language "hugs a lot of private systems, in varying degrees related to each other". This is expressed in the use of terms such as: sound system, or sound system of the language, phoneme system, or phonological system, vowel system (sounds, phoneme), vocalism system, or vocal system, consonant system, consonantism system, or consonant system, soft consonant system, lexical system, terminology system, or terminology, phraseological system, word-formation system, or word formation system, grammatical system, morphol system of parts of speech, system of the noun, system of the verb, or verbal system, system of verbal forms, declination system, conjugation system, case system, case forms, case endings, system of species, times, pledges , inclinations, perfect system and many others. The largest of these private systems, or subsystems, is usually called language levels, or language levels , less often tiers , but there is no generally accepted understanding of the language level (tier) in modern linguistics.
Typically, language levels are defined sets, sets of units of language, relatively close to each other in any respect. "Most often, the concept of a level is associated with the presence of some set of units .
A point of view deserves serious attention, according to which the levels of the language should be distinguished taking into account the hierarchical relations between the linguistic units. In the notion of a level, the idea of a hierarchical correlation of interconnected systems and their units in the structure of a language is first emphasized ... & quot ;. Let's compare some language level definitions contained in terminology dictionaries: "One of the main language subsystems (phonetics, morphology, syntax), considered in the order of their hierarchy"; One of the main aspects ("tiers") of a language ... conceivable as a step in the hierarchy of subsystems of the language & quot ;. In this regard, an interesting explanation of the concept of the language level, proposed by VM Solntsev. The essence of this explanation is that language levels are aggregates of relatively homogeneous units of language, connected with each other by paradigmatic and syntagmatic relations and not connected by hierarchical relations; hierarchical relations they are associated with the linguistic units of other levels. For example, all the morphemes of a particular language form a separate level, because they are related to one another by paradigmatic relations (they are homogeneous in a certain sense) and syntagmatic (in the flow of speech they can be combined in other, more complex units), but not related by relationships hierarchical (one morpheme can not be part of another, be a part of it); hierarchical relations of morpheme are associated only with units of other levels - phonetic as a lower level (usually represented by combinations of different phonemes) and lexical as higher (they are, as a rule, certain parts of lexemes).
In the presentation of VM Solntsev, the concept of the language level is as follows:
"The level of the language, apparently, should be called a collection of relatively homogeneous units that are not in hierarchical relations with each other and reveal hierarchical relations (either as larger values or as smaller values) with other units that also make up some aggregate.
The aggregates of such units are super-paradigms of relatively homogeneous units (for example, all phonemes of the given language, all morphemes of the given language, all words of the given language ). The units making up the super paradigm, or level, reveal paradigmatic and syntagmatic properties relative to each other: they are grouped into classes or paradigms (for example, different classes of phonemes, different classes of morphemes, different classes of words), and are combined in linear (syntagmatic) chains (chains of phonemes, chains of morphemes, chains of words).
Units of different superparadigms, or different levels, do not enter into each other either in paradigmatic or in syntagmatic relations. So, there can not be a class composed of phonemes and morphemes, morphemes and words, etc., as well as there are no linear sequences consisting of phonemes, morphemes and words.
In our opinion, the levels of the language, which are determined taking into account the hierarchical relations between the language units, differ most strictly and consistently.
§ 25. Due to the different understanding of the linguistic level by linguists, and also depending on what they mean by the unit of language, different amounts of language levels are called and described in the works of different authors - three, four, five or more. With a relatively strict understanding of linguistic levels, which can be distinguished with respect to the hierarchical relations between units of language, independent levels, it is obvious that:
1) phonetic, or phonemic, level of phonemes (sometimes called phonological, phonetic-phonological);
2) morphemic, or level of morphemes (more often called morphological, sometimes - morpheme-morphological)
3) lexical, or level of words, lexemes (sometimes also called verbal, lexical-semantic); 4) the level of word combinations and 5) the level of sentences (sometimes also called syntactic or communicative-syntactical) - with a possible subdivision into two: a) the level of simple sentences and b) the level of complex sentences.
In modern linguistics, the morphological and word-forming levels of the language are also traditionally distinguished. In accordance with our understanding of the linguistic level, recognition of the language system by separate levels of the data appears to be illegal.
Morphology as a system, or subsystem, is primarily a collection of grammatical forms of words, or word forms, that refer to words, or lexemes, as their peculiar elements, their representatives in speech. As for such abstract units of morphology as grammatical (more precisely morphological) categories, sometimes regarded as basic units of morphology, or grammemes as more private units, they also represent certain forms of words, characterize words from the point of view of certain grammatical features. Being represented in a number of word forms and in a separate word form, the gramme refers to the level of the word (as a word form). In addition, the level refers to the morphological category as a system of grammemes. " Even Ferdinand de Saussure said that "from a linguistic point of view, morphology does not have its real object of study ...". It is no coincidence that Academician VV Vinogradov called his main work on the morphology of the grammatical doctrine of the word .
Word formation, or the word-formation system (subsystem), includes, as the most important units, primarily derived words related to the lexical level of the language along with other, non-productive words, due to which some scientists (for example, AI Smirnitsky, K.A Levkovskaya) refer this area of language to vocabulary. As for the so-called complex units of the word-formation system of the language, such as the word-formative tinian, the word-formation model, which are sometimes regarded as the basic units of word formation, they represent certain schemes of derivatives of words, characterize a certain part of lexical units in terms of known derivational features (just as grammatical categories and grammemes characterize words in a grammatical, morphological sense).
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