MIGEL DE CERVANTES
The novel's genre in the literature of the Spanish Renaissance
Two great national traditions complete the Renaissance - English and Spanish. A brief blossoming of both accounts for the last third of the 16th century. They are consonant with a sense of tragic perfection, according to the unfulfilledness of the great humanistic dream. At the same time, Spanish and English cultures are opposed to each other in their real development, because they belong to countries that are at war with each other and its enmity symbolizing the confrontation of the Catholic and Protestant world in the renewed Europe. Spain becomes a stronghold of Catholicism, a country where the Inquisition had a tremendous power, where about half a million of the population were monks.
The Spanish King Philip II (reigns 1556-1598) during the lifetime of his great father Charles V inherited from him Spain with its European and transatlantic possessions. The vast territory was only a part of the lands belonging to the father: Charles V divided the empire in which "the sun never set" and where it was impossible to establish peace. England was not one of these domains, and from the moment Henry VIII divorced the aunt of Emperor Charles and reformed the church, the English king became the worst enemy of the Spanish ruler. However, the daughter of Henry and the cousin of Charles - Maria Tudor, having ascended to the throne in 1553, soon married the Spanish prince, the future Philip II. Her short-lived rule (died in 1558) was remembered as a brief and bloody attempt to return England to the bosom of Catholicism - the English Counter-Reformation. With the accession of Elizabeth, the fulfillment of this Spanish dream could only be carried out through a military invasion. For many years, Philip II planned it and in 1588 finally decided.
The huge fleet wore a big name - Invincible Armada. It was remembered in history by its great catastrophe, which nature began - the fleet fell into a storm - and the British finished.
England became the mistress of the seas, and Spain still more rapidly continued to decline to its decline. It was at this time in both countries is the formation of national culture. AN Veselovsky in the famous Introduction in historical poetics made this a memorable illustration of how complex the dependence in which the development of art is from the development of society. As in ancient Greece, the rise of drama in Renaissance England, it would seem, leads us to the conclusion that for its success it is necessary to "develop a person with the requirements of a free social system".But we are unable to reconcile this conclusion with the parallel rise of the Spanish drama in a stuffy political atmosphere, under a religious yoke that tied the freedom of the individual, driving it into a narrow path of enthusiasm and downfall. It is clear that not the qualities of the social environment caused the drama, but the sudden upsurge of people's self-awareness, brought up by recent victories in confidence in the future, broad historical and geographical horizons, new human goals for national development, new tasks for the energy of the individual. Behind the Greek, English and Spanish drama stand: the victory of Hellenism over the Persian East, the triumph of the popular-Protestant consciousness, which fills the English society of the Elizabethan era with such vitality, and the dream of a worldwide Spanish monarchy in which the sun does not set in.
The Spanish dream broke on reality. The larger the country became, the less prosperous it was. The period of national unification and world expansion became at the same time a period of economic catastrophe.
In 1492 the centuries-old Reconquista ended - the process of reconquering its own territory from the power of the Moors, who came to Spain in the VIII century. In the same year, Columbus went to discover for the Spanish crown what he considered India and what actually turned out to be America. The more gold and silver from the American possessions annually arrived in Spain, the poorer it became and the faster the number of beggars on its roads grew. It became unprofitable to produce. The economy fell into decay. From the energy of the national spirit, a Spanish drama of the golden age arose, the inertia of its development, however, withdraws from the Renaissance in the next to the 17th century, where Lope de Vega's discoveries were continued.
From direct observation of the Spanish reality a novel arose that summed up the European Renaissance and became the main genre for all subsequent centuries of European literature. The efforts of different national traditions led to its creation, but the Spanish, perhaps, the most important role - unifying. It was here romance that became a characteristic feature of a life situation marked by a new mobility that made the place of its action a great road. her remarkable tradition of the narrative genre of the Middle Ages - a knightly novel - has become a form of awareness of modernity.
Many paths of national traditions crossed on the soil of Spain, because this soil was traditionally culturally sensitive and because the last act of the Renaissance tragedy took place here (see "Specificities of the Spanish Renaissance" in the "Materials and Documents" rubric). Revival, beginning with the fact that a person, more than ever before, firmly felt the ground under his feet and experienced the delight of discovery "here" and now & quot ;, loses the acquired one. However, loss is preceded by another acquisition - himself, of his depth, self-awareness internal man. We can say that this awareness is made on the literary ground proper only in the novel.
In the conditions of cultural razvolosiya situation develops, especially favorable for the development of novel prose. The entire XVI century. Spain was read by knightly novels and produced them in huge numbers. For the novel published in 1508 by the novel Garcia Rodriguez Montalvo Amadis Gaelic followed by Palmerin English & quot ;, Belianis Greek and more than 100 other works about noble knights. These books, if not all of them were driving mad, as they drove Don Quixote mad, at least they were read widely and with enthusiasm.
However, the Spanish novel would not have made a breakthrough, if it had remained within the limits of knightly adventures. At the same time, he descended from heaven to earth. Anticipating the novel by Montalvo, in 1499 appears a mixed genre: the novel-drama "Celestine, or Tragicomedy about Kalisto and Melibee" Fernando de Rojas . The heroes of this narrative in prosaic dialogues are the beautiful Melibey and Kalisto, but the names are not their names, but Celestines are pimps, to whose services Calisto addressed. In the presence of the procurer, the courtly passion turns into a forbidden connection, which reduces love and in the end turns into the death of lovers, perceived as a moral punishment.
Celestine in his plot, connected the extreme genre points of development of the Spanish novel of the 16th century. On one side are the ideal feelings of knights and cowherds. Pastoral novels were not as numerous as chivalry, probably because their subject possibilities themselves allowed for much less variety, but their popularity did not diminish. They were also among the bestsellers of the 16th century. The first in this series is "Diana" the Spanish-Portuguese prose writer and poet Jorge de Montemayor , published in 1559 after Arcadia Italian Sannazaro. In its pastoral form, this epoch is expressed by the initial attraction to nature, realized as the highest value, but for which, so far, they are not looking for new forms, but are adapting the existing ancient samples. However, the pastoral novel, using the situations of traditional eclog, gives an opportunity for incomparably greater detail both in the description of nature itself and in the description of the feeling, the background for which it serves. The love of Diana and Siren, which can not be crowned by their union, conveys to the entire pastoral world the subtext of dreary doom, the promise of happiness and its unattainability. Pastoral romance, closer to nature, immerses in the inner world of man. This is a variant of psychological prose.
Absolutely different tendencies dominate on the other side of the novel prose, which is not close to the realm of the ideal, but to a harsh reality. Here everyday life reigns. Description is drawn to documentary reproduction of life types and situations. Dreamy in some genres, Spanish prose is an unprecedented sober, accurate in others. Settin anticipates one of the most significant discoveries made by Spanish literature of the sixteenth century - the picaresque novel , or picaresque (from picaro - so in Spain they called swindlers, rogues, unusually bred in an atmosphere that contrasts wealth with poverty). The first novel of this genre anonymously appeared around 1554 and was called Life of Lazarillo from Tormes . Tormes is a river in Spain. Lazarillo is a native of those places. The story of life is the usual plot of a picaresque novel that claims to be documentary.
The book, which is at the source of all the novel novel novel, takes several dozen pages of autobiographical narrative. The hero was born in a miller's family, soon to be fooled: "He was captured, confessed in everything, did not renounce anything and suffered for the truth." In this slyly-ironic intonation, a story is being told of his sorrows, deceits and about strangers. My stepfather - the Moor - also got caught stealing, too, but then a blind man turned up, suggested that the boy's mother take him to the guide. So the service began. From a stingy blind man to an even more stingy ass, from him to a poor nobleman, whom Lazaro has to feed. About these first in detail. Further flickering faces of the owners are barely discernible: a monk, a seller of papal credentials (also an excellent rascal), a master painting tambourines. This last Lazaro stayed, saved money for clothes and soon made a decision: to serve the crown, and not for individuals. Now he is the herald. He is patronized by the rector of the Church of the Savior in Toledo, who married Lazaro in his maid. At one time he was embarrassed by rumors that his wife, before marrying him, gave birth three times from the abbot, but Lazaro asked all those knowing him not to upset and not to quarrel with his wife.
The first commentator of his life is the narrator himself, which precedes the biography of a letter to somebody "Your grace":
"I admit, I am no better than others, and since this is common to everyone, I will not be disappointed if all that she likes is entertained and entertained by my trifle, written in a rude syllable. Let them know about the life of a man who has experienced so many adversities, dangers and misadventures. "
However, many things make you distrustful of the promise of an unpretentious confession, to which the narrator has nothing to add. Maybe so, but then the narrator too clearly does not coincide with the author, which is an ironic moral gaze from sees the tricks and intrigues of his hero, and begins his dedication by saying that at the same time quotes Pliny and Cicero. The narrative distance which for the future novelists by all means becomes the subject of a witty game, inviting to see more than the view of the hero is available, to check moral assessment of what is happening. In this story, one can only see the world's history, but it is possible, as the researchers do, to consider that, in its accentuated universality and everyday life, it grows into the Life of Man, a sort of morality, representing the earthly path of the soul, persecuted by suffering, falling into temptation.
The tradition of the picaresque novel will be established in the 17th century, but this first sample of it immediately gained immense popularity. The impression made by "Lazarillo", went beyond the limits of literature. The book was widely read and prompted to find the life of each person worthy of attention and story:
If you are curious to know my life, then know that I am Hines ds Pasamonte and that I wrote it myself.
- That's true, - the commissar confirmed, - he really wrote his biography, so much so that it's better not, only this book for two hundred reales is laid in prison. & lt; ... & gt;
- Is it good before that? - inquired Dop Kihot."It's so good," answered Gines, "that compared to her, Lasherillo from the banks of the Tormes and other books that were like that or some other time, either they will be written, the devil is not worth it. I can assure you, your Highness, that everything is true, but so fascinating and amusing that you can not keep up with it.
- And what is the name of the book? - asked Don Quixote.
- The life of Hines de Pasamopte, - answered the convict.
- And is it over? - asked Don Quixote.
- How can it be finished, if my life is not over? "Retorted Gines."
Such a conversation took place in the novel "The Clever Hidalgo Don Quixote of La Mancha" (I, Chapter XXII; N.Lyubimov's translation). Don Quixote - top of the Renaissance novel. Never before did the two lines of Spanish prose converge so closely and did not intertwine so inextricably: the dream rushed to transform reality. In Don Quixote they came together for a dialogue that lasts throughout the novel and constitutes its main plot.
Materials and documents
Specificity of the Spanish Renaissance
Of particular interest ... is the Spanish Renaissance, whose existence allows us to substantially clarify the assumption of L.M. Batkin about the two ways of the movement of European humanity to the New World - through Renaissance proper (Italy) and through the so-called Northern Renaissance, because the Spanish say wider - Iberian) Revival is exactly on the crossing of these two ways. The Spanish Renaissance, on the one hand, focused on the Italian, and on the other - on "Christian Humanism" Erasmus and Northern European mysticism. And it was able to combine both these beginnings, adding them to its own national and cultural experience, because in it, in this experience, was what LM Batkin rightly considers the defining property of the Renaissance type of thinking and Renaissance culture as a whole, - dialogic. Established for eight centuries of coexistence in the land of Spain, the dialogue of the Christian, Jewish and Arab cultures could not be interrupted ... He reoriented into the depth of personality, in the "inner man" (as metaphorically formulated by the idea of personality, Christian thinkers, beginning with the apostle Paul and ending with Erasmus), sufferingly thinking of his own, often by nature, the bloodiest programmed ... dissimilarity, , detachment from other people and at the same time yearning for lost spiritual integrity. Therefore, the dialogism of the Spanish Renaissance is not only a synchronized comparison of the different opinions, tastes, beliefs, cultural positions, (LM Batkin), but also a meeting of personal positions open to each other, contact of differently organized minds. This is, in the final analysis, the dialogue between Don Quixote and Sancho, which, according to wise observation by Antonio Machado, do nothing more important than they say to each other.
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