Moriak: drama of the soul - History of foreign literature...

Moriak: drama of the soul

With all the variety of style trends of the French novel of the 20th century. and, in particular, post-war, it is necessary to single out one that is related to the writings of writers, who are also concerned with moral and ethical, religious problems, among others. Among them were such outstanding artists as Julien Greene (1900-1994), Georges Bernanos (1888-1948), Paul Claudel (1868-1955), each of which deserves attention. Note that they all insisted that they be called non-Catholic writers, and Catholic writers writing novels. The same applies to the English Graham Greene and Evelyn Vo.

In this brilliant but far from exhausted list, a particularly notable place is occupied by François Moriak (1885-1970). A classic not only of French, but also world literature of the past century. Such a high status is determined not only formally awarded the Nobel Prize (1952). Moriak is a vivid example of the post-Balzac realism, revealed artistic originality in the illumination of the "eternal" themes. And this will give grounds to talk about a special "moriakovskom" type or genre variety of the novel (3. Kirnoz). In this he reached the artistic heights. According to Moriak, the writer-novelist should be concerned about three deep conflict situations - God and man; man and woman, man and his conscience. Heroes of the novels, according to Moriaku , are born of a marriage union with reality, but the uniqueness of this union, as well as the truth of reality, he understood in his own way. And people saw him "desert palaces", the secrets of which must be penetrated.

Moriak was a native of a bourgeois family, a native of the city of Bordeaux. He began to compose early, and his journey full of constant literary work lasted more than six decades: the first book of poems was published five years before the outbreak of the First World War, and the last, memoirs "Memories of inner life" (1965), five years before his death. His views during this long period, of course, underwent a change, but his deep writers' principle remained unshakable: humanism and commitment to justice. The poet, essayist, critic, historian of literature, but above all a novelist, Moriak made the scene of most of his works Bordeaux, his surroundings, Landes, the edge of pines and dunes. It was a "small homeland" writer, truly " country of Moriak", as Normandy - "Maupassant country", Flanders - "country Verhaeren", "New England" - the country of Frost.

Debuting with a poetic book, Moriak becomes a professional writer after the publication of the novel " A child under the burden of chains (1913). In it there is a "balzac" topic: young man Jean Paul Joané comes to Paris full of hope, but feels lonely, unnecessary, believing his life to be useless. He tries to defend himself from the hostile city, hiding in his closet, buried in books. But in the end, he finds salvation in love and conversion to God.

Then there are a few more of Moriak's novels: & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; His mastery grows stronger, his masterpiece Teresa Descairu (1927), rightly included in the Moriakovsky "canon" appears. In the ruthless exploration of the heroine's inner world, Moriak's assimilation of Dostoevsky's experience is noticeable. And although in the center of a female criminal, before us the novel is not criminal, but social and psychological.

Young Teresa Descairu is brought up in the suffocating, heavy sanctimonious atmosphere of a deaf provincial town. By nature it is pure, lives its inner life, reaches out to those who "all want to know and understand." But the writer does not forget to recall that the heroine "in the blood always had a sense of ownership", i.e. the concept and purpose of that harsh environment to which it belonged by birth. The heroine is humiliated by the fact that she was married to a businessman who is self-satisfied and narrow-minded, whose interests are fixed solely on gain. A similar situation has long been played in the classics. She is well acquainted with the novels of Balzac, Tolstoy, Dickens, Galsworthy. About this state George Sand responded succinctly: "Marriage without love - katorga."

Moriak does not simplify the situation at all. Theresa is both a victim and a criminal at the same time. And maybe, conditionally, of course, compared with Clyde Griffiths from Dreiser's novel "American tragedy" (1925), which appeared a year before Teresa Descaires and caused a worldwide response. But the heroine of Moriak is not driven by material, but rather by moral considerations. Her vengeful hatred is a resurgence of resentment for a ruined life, for unrealized love. For a long time, Theresa methodically poisons her husband. And although at the trial it is justified "because of a lack of evidence", for the reader it is obvious - it is her fault. Close Teresa is not afraid of her crime, but the threat that the scandal will cast a shadow on the family, the reputation is damaged.

Moriak wrote the continuation of this novel under the significant name "The End of the Night" (1935). So there was the Theology about Therese Descaires, now old and alone. But even now, "the sinner" exudes evil even against his will. She wants to atone for her sin and helps her daughter to marry a young man Georges, to which she herself is breathing unevenly. But this marriage, as once her own, is unhappy. And her daughter's life is as hopeless as Teresa's.

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