§ 3. Morphological categories of adjectives
The categories of gender, number, case, degree of comparison, completeness and brevity belong to the morphological categories of adjectives.
The category of the genus of adjectives (both full and short) is a inflectional category, expressed in the form of opposing forms of male, female and neuter gender: a new phone new pizzeria , new exception; the novel is captivating, the play is fascinating, the work is captivating. The adjective definition is consistent with the noun in the role of any member of the sentence: It appears in such facts someone's evil and strong will (zh), with swing organized disorder (m.) (O. Kuvaev). The adjective-predicate is coordinated with the noun serving as a subject: Farewell did not come out vigorous expedition , as it should , and strained and even fake (sr.). In both cases, the endings of the adjectives only confirm the already obvious affiliation of the determined or coordinated nouns to a particular genus.
In the case when the full adjective is combined with indeclinable nouns, only its endings indicate the affiliation of these nouns to one or another genus: resourceful entertainer , charming top model , the famous interview. The defining form in this respect is the form of adjectives in combination with the indecipherable names of faces ( smiling - smiling entertainer ), with nouns of the general genus ( what - what kind of bully ), with job titles ( new manager - new manager ), with personal and return pronouns ( you yourself and you yourself , myself and myself , most yourself and most yourself).
Category of number in adjectives - inflectional category, represented in the form of opposed forms e.ch. and many pl. This applies to the adjectives of all genera, with the delimitation of generic endings in the singular. and their unification in plural: virtual world , virtual world; parliamentary commission , parliamentary commission; subsidiary enterprise, subsidiary enterprise and virtual worlds, virtual worlds; parliamentary commissions , parliamentary commissions; Subsidiaries , of subsidiaries, etc.
When full adjectives are combined with immutable nouns, only the endings of these adjectives are an indicator of the numerical value of nouns: famous - famous couturiers , first - first ladies , short - brief summaries.
The categories of the genus and the number are also characterized by a short adjective, which, acting as a predicate, is coordinated with the subject-noun or pronoun: mechanism ( it ) disassembled , system (it) dismantled , device ( it ) disassembled - the mechanisms of the system , devices ( they ) are dismantled.
The category of the case is expressed in six rows (by the number of cases) of the forms of complete adjectives, which are contrasted with each other. We are talking about the vast majority of adjectives, mostly United States by origin: non-cash , non-cash , non-cash ...; tax , tax , tax ...; State, State, State, State; extras , out-of-date , extra-stat ... , etc.
In United States there is a small group of indeclinable adjectives, borrowed mainly from Western European languages: openwork , Empire , baroque , beige , bordeaux , indigo , lux , max , midi mocha , retro , rococo , hacks , etc.
When combined with indeclinable nouns, adjectives with their morphological forms prompt case values of the latest: beautiful air show , about the fashionable cafe , unknown zombies.
Short adjectives do not have case forms. The exception is forms that are preserved in some expressions ( in broad daylight , on bare feet ), in works of folk art ( good young , by the pure field ).
Degrees of comparison - the grammatical category of adjectives, which denotes differences in the degree of manifestation of quality ( current - current - current ). Forms of comparative degree can have not only qualitative adjectives, but also adverbs on -o and -e , formed from them. However, they differ syntactically. The comparative degree of adjectives determines the noun ( Its looks are more attractive ), and the comparative degree of adverbs determines the verb ( It looked more attractive ) and rarely applies to the noun.
Traditionally, there are three degrees of comparison: positive, comparative and excellent. As a positive degree, we can consider the initial form of the adjectives, although this form calls the quality of the object beyond comparison with the manifestation of this quality in another subject ( liberal mode ).
The form of the comparative degree denotes that the quality is inherent in this object to a greater extent than to another or to another or the same subject, but under different circumstances: The rain here seemed weaker (O. Kuvaev). Forms of comparative degree can be simple (synthetic) and complex (analytical, descriptive, composite).
Simple forms of comparative degree of adjectives are formed from the basis of a positive degree with the help of suffixes -ee , -e , -che . The suffix -ee ( -y ) joins the bases on the consonant (except k, r, x ) and in some other cases. If there are two syllables in the adjective, the suffix -ee ( -y ) bears the stress ( left - left , left ; exact - more precisely , more precisely ). If in the adjective more than two syllables, the stress in relative degree remains on the basis ( humane - humanely , humane, intensive - , is more intensive ). The suffix -e is attached to the basics of r , k , x , and in some cases ( cm ), e. In this case, alternate r - x , k - h , x - w , d - x , t - ч , Z - ж , cm - г e , went to lay h e , su x ou - su w e , d oi - young g e , god t - god h e , knots cue - with g e , pro st oi - about ui e. Forms of comparative degree with the suffix - e have the stress always based on. Some of them form the basis of the suffix: short to i - shorter , broad to - is wider. Using the suffix - she forms of comparative degree from adjectives are formed far ( distance she and gave her ), early ( early she wounds her ), thin , she large ( pain she and bol her ). Some adjectives have non-standard forms of comparative degree: good ( ray she ), small ( less ), bad ( xy same ), which are formed from other roots. They are called suppletive.
Adding the prefix to - to forms of a simple comparative degree softens the degree of manifestation of the sign: more fun - more cheerful , higher by above , less - by less. Such forms are typical for colloquial speech . Simple forms of comparative degree do not change by gender, number and case. They can be combined with names in the RP: Video equipment more expensive ( radio equipment ).
The complex form of the comparative degree of adjectives is formed by the combination of the adjective in the initial form and the words more (or less ): more () easy ( is easy ). Such forms are more often found in book speech. In one adjective, you can not combine a simple and complex form of comparative degree: less significant , more colorful.
For any forms of the comparative degree of adjectives, there can be a construction with a union than + I.p. Several of the sworn attorneys with their wives were drinking tea and louder , than all the people , talking (AN Tolstoy).
The form of an excellent degree means that quality is inherent in this subject in the highest measure, i.e. more than others: Lake Baikal - the deepest lake in the world. The highest degree of quality inherent in a particular subject, the form of an excellent degree of adjectives can designate and without regard to other, homogeneous. For example, saying beautiful places , we do not mean that they are the most beautiful of all known to us, but that these places are very "beautiful".
The forms of superlatives can also be simple and complex. The simple (synthetic) forms of the superlative degree of the adjectives are formed from the basis of the positive degree by the suffix -yesh - ( exact - eish ), and from adjectives with a basis on r , k , x - with the suffix In the latter case, there is an alternation r , k-h , x - w : g i - g iis , went to - lay down h iish , te x i <- te sh . A simple superlative degree can be attached to the prefix , giving the word the value of the marginal measure of the characteristic and thereby enhancing its expressiveness: the cleverest the cleverest - the most the smartest.Complex forms of superlative adjectives (analytical, descriptive, compound) are formed by the combination of the words most , most , the least with the form of a positive degree: the most conservative , the most competitive , the least capable. A compound in an adjective simple and complex form of superlatives ( the highest) is incorrect.
A complex form of superlative degree can be formed by combining the comparative degree of the adjective with the pronouns of all , all : This path is the shortest ; Our songs are melodic all .
Not all adjectives form forms of degrees of comparison. For example, forms of comparative degree can not be formed from adjectives associated with certain characteristics of a person (his physical handicaps are deaf , oblique , mute , lame, lame, family position - unmarried , idle ) or animals (their suits are brown , black , bay ). In addition to the semantic features of adjectives, the formation of a comparative degree can be hampered by their word-building structure. Thus, they are incapable of having these forms relative in the past, adjectives with the suffixes -sk - , -ov - , -n - , which have developed qualitative meanings : brotherly - close in spirit, friendly, business - smart, manual - tamed.
Some linguists deduce adjectives with suffixes -yesh - , -aish - from the category of degrees of comparison on the grounds that they are close in their meaning to suffixal derivatives of the type The tremendous , hefty. The suffixes -yes - , -aish - are suggested not as formative (inflectional), but as word-building and the corresponding adjectives - not as forms of superlative degree, but as separate words like formations with suffixes -us - (- -), -enne - , calling the high measure kache sity. This generally denies the presence in modern United States language of an excellent degree of quality as a grammatical category. However, with this approach it is difficult to agree.Firstly, we are talking about the grammatical system of the modern literary (standardized) language, in which not only traditionally, but also taking into account the grammatical meaning and function of the entities under consideration, three series of forms of degrees of comparison are systematically distinguished - positive, comparative and excellent. They differ precisely in the degree of manifestation of quality, regardless of whether they are of different subjects or in one of them, but under different circumstances or in general without regard to this quality in other subjects.
Secondly, it is impossible to equate grammatical phenomena, what are the adjectives with suffixes -yesh - , -aish - (regardless of whether they are considered a factor of morphology or word formation) , to lexicalized phenomena - derivatives with suffixes -us - (- -), -enne -. If the suffixes , -aish - are the active elements of a functioning language system that can be combined with hundreds of adjectives, the suffixes -us - (- ), -enne - at present can hardly be considered productive and even regular. In Reverse Dictionary of United States 1974, including about 125 thousand words selected from the explanatory dictionaries of the modern United States language, no more than a dozen derivatives with the suffix -us - ( -yush - ) are fixed, and those mostly are of little use: large us , length yy i , greedy , cursed us , drunk us , thick us strong>, cunning us ( cunning yy ), art < strong> yy yy. Consequently, lexicalization in this case is that the suffix -us - ( -yush - ) can only be combined with a numerically limited group of adjectives and can not systemically join others without violating grammatical and stylistic norms. The use of appropriate adjectives in speech is not systemic, but is due to their individual characteristics. For example, the derivatives tremendous , cursing , drunk , worst are used in expressing the evaluation instead of synthetic forms of superlative adjectives big , cursed , drunk , lean due to the absence of these forms in the language, for example the greatest. Other derivatives with the suffix -us - ( -your - ) are used in certain situations as more expressive than parallel forms with -ish - , -aish -. Compare: the longest - the longest , the greedy - the greedy , the thickest - the thicker , x and the top - cunning.
The suffix -enne - , also giving importance to a high degree of quality, occurs generally in four words: high , hefty , scared , heavy.
Thirdly, all adjective affixes with a magnifying-expressive value: -power - , -enne - , -hunting - , -schenek - ( full-moon , full-blown ), times - , races - ( staggered , beautiful ), pre - ( great ), most - ( the worst ) - are not just unproductive, but they also introduce a colloquial, even a wholly tint, while the suffixes -ish - , -aish - are stylistically neutral, which unites them not with the indicated affixes, but with suffixes of comparative degree -eе , -е.
The backbone of the United States grammatical system, of each morphological category, including the degrees of comparison, is stylistically neutral language means, which are the suffixes that form the forms of comparative and superlative adjectives. Only against the background of these suffixes can you consider stylistically labeled "replacements", if they are in the language. And it is hardly justifiable from a scientific point of view to substitute systemic, stylistically neutral means used to express the category of degrees of comparison of adjectives by means that are found only in single lexicalized formations.
Full and short forms of qualitative adjectives: beautiful - beautiful , high - high. Short forms are formed by adding to the basis of the adjective endings of the genus and number. In I.I. singular and many pl. short forms have the same endings as the nouns of the 1st and 2nd declensions: a) in the singular. m. - zero ending ( beautiful , blue , hot , strict , good ) ; b) in the Zh. - endings -a , -y ( beautiful , blue , hot , is good ) ; c) in the middle - - - o , -e beautiful , blue , hot , strictly , good ) ; g ) at pl. - endings -y , -and ( are beautiful , blue , hot , are strict , are good ).
In the formation of a short form mr. alternations can occur. Thus, if the stem of the adjectives ends in - n or -k: a) between n and the previous consonant, e ( e ) ( true - is true , smart - cleared ) ; with the formation of short forms on -en and -enen ( immoral from adjectives to -en - immorality , is immoral ), it must be borne in mind that both forms are literary, but forms on -enene are more characteristic of book speech; b) between -k and the preceding consonant, there appears o ( thin - thin ) c) and d , facing n and k , alternate with e () ( bitter - bitter , strong - strong , slender - is structured , smart - fighter ). If the full adjectives tend and act as a definition and a predicate ( young engineers are in Kazan.) bearded , girls in trousers V. Potanin), then the short adjectives do not change with case except for individual cases ( in white light , on horse's heights ) and appear in the sentence only in the role of the predicate : The eyes were severe and sad (V. Potanin).
In the use of short and complete adjectives, there are differences: a) semantic: if the full adjectives often denote a permanent attribute, then the short ones are temporary: The child sick (in general) and Child is sick (at the moment); Bag heavy (absolute sign) and Bag heavy (relative characteristic); b) grammatical: if the full adjectives can not usually be used with dependent words, the short ones can be: The child was sick (can not be added angina ), but The child was sore throat ; c) stylistic: You , Olya , windy (relaxed assessment) and You , Olya , windy (categorical assessment).
Most qualitative adjectives have full and brief forms. But the two groups of adjectives have only full forms: 1) indicating the suit of animals ( brown , piebald , savory ), or containing amplifying expressive suffixes ( cunning , broad , preeminent , beautiful ), or including the suffixes of relative adjectives ( brutal , Satanic and etc.); 2) the adjectives much , must , any , rad , as well as the suffix -hunek- , -schenek ( radechnek , radyshenek , etc.).
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