Logical of speech is the communicative quality of the content of utterances, text, formed as a result of the consistent cohesion of linguistic units and consistent argumentation according to the laws of logic and right thinking. The clutches of linguistic units are comprehended as logically consistent if they are determined by the connections and relationships of reality and truly reflect the structure of thought.
Traditionally, there are two types of logicality - subject and conceptual.
Object logicality is determined by the correspondence of semantic links and relations of units of language in speech to connections and facts of reality.
Conceptual logic is a reflection of the structure of thought and its development in the semantic connections of units of speech activity (speech act, speech, utterance).
In a communicative act, objective and conceptual logic are one, interdependent and interrelated.
The logicality conditions can be extralinguistic (nonstructural) and linguistic proper (structural). It is important that each act of thinking should correspond to the basic laws of logic : the laws of identity, contradiction, excluded third, sufficient grounds. They correspond to such features of speech as sequence, certainty, consistency and soundness thoughts.
The sequence of the development of thought, its certainty (unambiguousness, clarity, sustainability of its content) is achieved by observing the logical law of identity , according to which every thought within one reasoning, one proof, one theory must remain constant, the same content must be explicated. Violation of the law of identity leads to such a logical error as "substitution of the thesis," substitution of the topic under discussion with another topic, the discrepancy between the argument arguments of the thesis, ie, position, which is proved, justified. The proof in this case with respect to another thesis may be correct, the mistake is precisely in the substitution of the thesis. Take, for example, the following excerpt from the student's response:
When analyzing the formal organization of compound sentences, it is necessary to take into account that the number of predicative units in open structure offers is unlimited, all parts, as a rule, have the same grammatical form. All this indicates that such compound proposals are flexible.
The student as the author of the given fragment reasoned and consistently constructed the utterance, but allowed a substitution of the thesis. It is known that the compound proposals of the open structure are all flexible, it does not require proof. As a basic thesis it was necessary to use the characteristic of the named group of compound sentences as structures of a homogeneous composition.
Consistency of thinking is also due to the observance of the contradiction law , according to which two mutually exclusive judgments about the same subject, taken at the same time and in the same can not be true at the same time. For example, if from two judgments your teacher yesterday went on a business trip and your teacher yesterday read a special course at the College of Arts one is true, then the other according to the law of contradiction is false. True are judgments that correspond to reality. So, the utterance The sun will rise in the morning is true, because it affirms a fact that takes place in reality. Saying The sun will rise in the evening is false, because it does not agree with reality.
With the law of contradiction, the law of the excluded middle is connected. Its essence consists in the following: from two contradictory judgments one must be true, and the other false, and there can be no third judgment true with respect to the same thing at the same time. This law applies only to contradictory, i.e. denying each other, judgments: Accrued has recovered - The deceased has not recovered. This law is directed against inconsistency, contradictory reasoning. A logical error related to the violation of the law of the excluded third can be noted in the excerpt from the oral answer of the student:
F. I. Tjutchev - the poet-philosopher, the last United States romanticist. As a philosopher, he reflects on the meaning of the universe, human existence, about sinfulness and purification. As a romantic, it is peculiar to the spiritualization of natural forces, the denial of modern society. As a poet, he is partial to love, earthly passions - everything that distracts from a global romantic and sociological philosophical reflection.
In the above example, the last statement excludes the previous statement. The third judgment in a sequential form should be an argument to all of the above, but not a contradiction. Wed, for example:
As a poet, he is partial to love, earthly passions - everything, which, in turn, only contributes to profound romantic and socially philosophical reflections.
The laws of identity, contradiction and the excluded third interact with each other and acquire real meaning only if the law of good reason is observed, according to which every right thought must be argued. Judgment will be true if sufficient grounds are indicated (ideally, proof of theorems in mathematics). The main tool of thinking in this case is the inferences that are realized in such mental operations as analysis, synthesis, analogy, deduction, induction. Compliance with this law provides evidence and reasonableness reasoning.
The validity of the law of sufficient grounds can be illustrated by the formulation of definitions. They should not be either too narrow or too broad: in the definition, only essential signs of an object or phenomenon should be considered, and the enumeration of these characteristics must be consistent and complete. Thus, in the definition given by the student The book - a work of printing in the form of stitched together sheets with some text does not specify the minimum volume, there is no indication of the difference between the book and the brochure. Specialists give an accurate definition: "The book is a non-recurrent publication in the form of piled sheets of printed material with a volume of more than 48 pages in the cover."
In the speech of a modern educated person, the laws of formal logic, valid from the ancient times, are stable and stable. Let us dwell in more detail on illustrations of violations of logical norms in modern United States.
1. The law of identity requires that, within one reasoning, the object of thought be one and the same, so that one knowledge of it is not replaced by another. Here's an example:
M. V. Lomonosov admired the beauty and richness of the United States language and understood that our language is the language of the great people. The United States people went through a great historical path, stood up against the cruel conquerors, and in the twentieth century became the winner in the Great Patriotic War (from op.).
In this argument, there was a substitution of the thesis: beginning to talk about one, the orator "slips" from the topic and spreads about something else.
2. The law of contradiction indicates that two statements can not be true simultaneously, one of which claims something and the other denies:
The most talented poet-sixties was Yevgeny Yevtushenko.
Andrei Voznesensky is not inferior to him in his talent, he was also recognized in the sixties of the 20th century (from op.).
The two phrases contradict each other, which means that the idea is formulated incorrectly. Violation of the law of contradiction can be seen in fiction, especially in translations, when the text is reproduced inaccurately. For example, L. Bat so translated the text of Yu Zbanatsky:
In the evening before August, we, Bobrov and Avdotin, are standing in the bushes over the river ... The merry, bright sun has already risen. Below, below us, the river is agitated. It is still covered with ice.
This strange description was a consequence of the fact that the translator missed the opening words of the paragraph: As it was once, in that unforgettable August evening before the evening ... Everything was correct, but skipping the first sentence in the paragraph turned out to be a violation the second law of logic.
3. The law of the excluded third states that of two contradictory judgments about an object, only one can be true, and the other will be false. There is no third! See, for example: The patient entered our department in unconscious state and immediately got acquainted with the schedule (from the doctor's explanatory note).
Violation of the laws of logic is the cause of the most ridiculous statements. For example, in the statement of the guide In the reserve live animals that have already become extinct violated the law of identity. Journalists are also making the same mistake. In particular, when commenting on the popular unrest in Georgia in November 2007, the correspondent stated: Mikhail Saakashvili believes that the demonstrations against him are organized by Russia; Saakashvili's opponents accuse him of collusion with Moscow (NTV broadcast of November 8, 2007). According to the law of identity, the object of thought within one reasoning must remain unchanged, one knowledge can not be replaced by another, which, as we see, occurred in the cited statement.
Meanwhile, the writer can beat the resulting illogicality in order to create a humorous situation, as Yuri Polyakov did in his merry work "The Little Goat in Milk":
- And do you think there are Masons in the Soviet Union?
- I do not know for certain, but we are on the first place in terms of minerals. Should be.
- I also think so.
Unintentional illogicality in colloquial speech is a consequence of spontaneous repotency:
I worked as a head of the housing and communal services for a long time and understood: the more garbage, the higher the standard of living of the population.
Thus, the correct precondition for a logical presentation of thought is the correct compatibility (syntagmatics) of language elements at the lexico-semantic, morphological and syntactic levels. Logical of the presentation is manifested in the accuracy of the use of words and phrases, in the correct construction of sentences and coherent text in general, i.е. is closely related to such characteristics of speech as accuracy and correctness.
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