Phonemes in the stream of speech, The concept of the flow of...

CHAPTER 3. Phonemes in the flow of speech

§ 1. The concept of the flow of speech

Ordinary speech is not just a sequence of isolated sounds, but a continuous sound stream in which sounds are in different positions, different combinations with each other. Therefore, their variability under such conditions is quite natural. The change in sounds is caused by the activity of the pronunciation apparatus, namely, that the work of one pronoun is superimposed on the work of the other. Delay of the palatine curtain in the lowered position (for example, in the syllable to ) causes the vowel to be nasalized in the initial phase; rounding and bulging lips already when pronouncing a consonant in the position before /o/ and /y/ means their labialization - [ c ° t ° ul ] , [ п ° р ° ок ] in chair , proc. This leads to the formation of mandatory (combinatorial and positional) allophones. Hence, from the articulatory-acoustic point of view, the flow of speech represents the continuous activity of the pronouncing mechanism that generates sound; from a linguistic point of view, the flow of speech is the process of formation of obligatory allophones. To characterize the formation of allophones in the flow of speech, the expression "modification of phonemes" is sometimes used, i.e. their modifications.

Combinatorial changes are represented by two varieties. When the subsequent sound is subjected to the effect of the preceding one, the change is progressive (from Latin progressus - forward movement), for example the appearance of a stressed vowel under the influence of a soft consonant and -shaped sound in the initial phase ([ pr ' and al ]). When the preceding sound is subjected to the following, the change is regressive (from Latin regressus - backward movement), for example, the consonant labialization before /o, y.

The positional allophones of vowels are primarily represented by shock vowels ([ fisherman ]) and unstressed ([ fist ]). The differences between the vowels in the position of the absolute beginning ([ arbus ]) and of the absolute end ([ fishes ) are less significant (for unstressed allophones) ʌ]), as well as open vowels (ending with a vowel [[ ore ]), and a closed syllable (ending with a consonant <[ nose ]).

§ 2. Vowel phonemes under stress

Modern studies show that the vowels are acoustically articulatory in relation to their entire sound. In a stressed vowel, three constituent elements can be distinguished: 1) a characteristic (stationary) section of sounding, according to which the vowel is recognized as the allophone of a given phoneme; 2) transition from the previous consonant to a stationary site; 3) the transition from a stationary site to a subsequent consonant. The features of the transition areas are determined primarily by the hardness and softness of neighboring consonants. On this basis, the four vowel positions differ:

hard consonant + vowel + solid consonant

hard consonant + vowel + soft consonant

soft consonant + vowel + solid consonant

soft consonant + vowel + soft consonant.

Under the influence of solid consonant, the vowel sounds slightly. Under the influence of a soft vowel changes to a much greater extent. In the transition to the vowel (3,4), the latter acquires the faculty [ and ] in the initial phase, and upon transition to the soft (2,4) [ and ] - in the final phase of the vowel. Vowels with similar ghosts are called diphthongoids. Diphthongoidicity in the final phase is always less noticeable than in the initial phase. Diphthongoidness (but not only on [ and ]) is a characteristic feature of United States vowels. In the position between the soft diphthongoid appears in the beginning and at the end of the vowel, affecting its stationary part. The latter makes diphthonoid activity less noticeable. Upper vowels /and , s , y/ vary in the speech stream less than the vowels of the mean /o, e/ and the lower rise /a/. The sound /and/ is almost uniform throughout its sound: it is difficult to distinguish between transitional areas. Vowels in the absolute beginning [ August ] and in the absolute end [ where ] are not affected respectively by the preceding and subsequent consonants, which can be conditionally equated with the neighborhood of the consonant rendering on vowel minimum impact. It is clear that these allophones of vowel phonemes under stress are of a combinatorial type.

It should be borne in mind that the influence of the hardness and softness of consonants does not limit their effect on vowels. Neighborhood with nasal causes nasalization neighborhood with /k , r , x w , x , n/ - lifting the back of the tongue back to the soft palate - velarization; while the vowel moves away back; The proximity to the front language dentition causes the vowel articulation to move forward. As a rule, the progressive influence is stronger than the regressive one.

Given the initial and final positions of the stressed vowel, the four above positions can be represented in the following form. ( t and a respectively denote any consonant and any vowel.)

Position 1 (type tat ) : a) tat - between solid consonants; b) at - at the beginning of the word before the solid; c) ta - at the end of the word after the solid. Position 2 (type tat ): a) tat - between the solid and soft; b) at ' - at the beginning of the word before the soft. Position 3 (type t'at ): a) t'at - between soft and hard; b) t'a - at the end of the word after the soft. Position 4 (type t'at ' ) : a) t'at ' - between soft. (In the future, a type 3b entry will mean the position t'a: [ joke 'a ].)

Phoneme / and / can act in all positions. Position 1: 1 a - b a l , sh a , p a d , a a a 1b - a pk a , a d , and strings , a ct; 1c - pine a , games a , spit , trembling. This is an open unbalanced vowel of the forward (back) row, the bottom rise, slightly pushed back. The transcription designation is [ a c]. (The words open and closed are used here and further to indicate the lower and higher position of the language, respectively.)

Position 2: 2a - m a Th , Pl a h , m a , b a rin; 2b - a , a , A , a winter. Under the influence of the subsequent soft, the middle part of the tongue's back slightly lifts, and the tongue advances slightly forward. Difftonoidity appears in the final phase. Transcription - [ a ].

Position 3: 3a - ch a c , n I , i years , hum i ka 3b - fire I , smoke i , grow a , i i . Under the influence of the previous soft, the tongue advances even more, and the middle part of the back considerably rises to the palate. Then the language slips to a lower level, as in position 1a. As a result, an explicit diphthongoid principle appears on [ and ]. Transcription - [ • a ].

Position 4: 4a - pr i d , h a th , dir i t , d i dy. In the environment of soft [ a ] pronounced with a high rise of the tongue; becomes closed. Diphthongoidism is felt to a lesser degree, especially at the end. The sound [ a ] becomes like an open [ e ]. Transcription - [ • a ].

Phoneme/e/ can act in all positions. Position 1: 1a - w e , c e x , est e t , fuj e p , n e n , g e c; 1b - e that , e , e c , e 1c - into the shower e , dragee e , at the end e , strong> e . An open, unbalanced vowel of the front row of the middle lift is pronounced. Transcription - [es].

Position 2: 2a - c e pi , g e wh , e e , sh e i , do not e ; 2b - e ty , e cue , strong> dick. Under the influence of the subsequent soft, the middle part of the tongue of the tongue rises to the hard palate. The vowel becomes more closed and acquires a diphthongoid at the end. Transcription - [ e ].

Position 3: 3a - l e with , h e x , b e , car e that , e 3b - to you , on the plate , in the mind , completely. Under the influence of the previous soft [ ] begins with the sound [ and ]. The language first occupies the position characteristic of [ and ], then drops to the middle level. Transcription - [ • e ].

Position 4: 4a - n e n , h e th , e e , cal e . In the environment of soft [a] it becomes closed. Diphthongoidism is felt weakly. Transcription - [ • e ].

The phoneme/and/ can not stand after a solid, i.e. in positions 1a and 2a. Position 1: 1b - and Skin , and Expand , < strong> and dol , and odd , & ra. The unvoiced vowel upper lift of the front row. In comparison with allophones in other positions, it can be considered an open vowel. Transcription - [ and with].

Position 2: 2b - name , hoarfrost , exactly , or. Under the influence of the soft consonant [ and ] becomes less open. Transcription - [ ц ].

Position 3: 3a - and n , x and Troy , h and n , to and b and tk , to and na ; 3b - ber and , gave and , to the and , ship and , day and . Almost the same [ and ], as in 2b. Transcription - [ s ].

Position 4: 4a - n and Th , in and Th , g and bel , with and , hold and whether . In the environment of soft consonants [ and ] it becomes vowel as high as possible. closed. Transcription - [ and ]. Due to the fact that the diphthongoidity [ and ] is very weakly expressed, it is not possible to show it by means of the transcription used.

Phoneme / y / can act in all positions. Position 1: 1a - st y to , d y b , pcs y ka , sh y yak , with y yes; 16 - y m , y with , y , y daughter; 1в - sit у , in the cabinet у , down y , cacade y . A rather open labialized vowel of the forward rear) of the upper lift series. Transcription - [ y with].

Position 2 : 2a - d y t , pcs strong> , burzh y i , n y , tr y sit; 2b - y yma , y zeal , y faces , y shiki. Under the influence of the subsequent soft consonant [ y ], in front of him. The middle part of the tongue of the tongue rises to the palate, which makes it less open. The final phase is characterized by and -shaped diphthongoid character. Transcription - [ y ].

Position 3: 3a - p yy mka , l yy to , n yy hut , miracle , all yy do; 3b - joke , b yy , con yy , west yy . Under the influence of the preceding soft consonant [y] it becomes even more forward. The front and middle of the tongue of the tongue are raised to the palate. The initial phase is characterized by diphthongoidy, not only on [ and ], but on the corresponding labialized front vowel [Y]. Transcription - [Y y ].

Position 4: 4a - ч у Th , пл ы ннь , t yy bic , cl yy h , yy . In the environment of soft [ y ] becomes closed and largely forward. Diphthongoidity on [ • y ] and on [ and ] is felt weakly. Transcription - [ y ].

Phoneme / about / can act in all positions.

Position 1: 1a - st about l , to about t , in about p , g about hot , bol about then ; 1b - About Trial , About Colo , About Render about hut , About msk; 1-oars about , logs about , fresh about , Dark About . The open labialized vowel of the forward (back) row of the middle rise with a clear-shaped beginning is pronounced . In the final phase, weakening of labial articulation is observed, i.e. deliba- lization; therefore [ o ] ends with an element [n], similar to [ a ] in an unstressed position. Transcription - [y o L !!!].

Position 2: 2a - cr about , to about , n about i , pog about day , To about ; 2b - about , about zero , About , about the pen. Under the influence of the subsequent soft [ o ] it becomes more forward and less open; y -like diphthongoid character in the initial phase is preserved, in the final phase there is a call [ and ]. The transcription is [y o and].

Position 3: 3a - cl g n , g zhik , pl g TCA , uch g ny; 3b - shoulders on , Belle g , hot on , mo g . Under the influence of the preceding soft [ o ] becomes even more forward. The front and middle of the tongue of the tongue are raised to the palate. In the initial phase, [Y o & Ugrave;] sounds, in the final case delabialization is observed. Transcription - [Y about & Ugrave;].

Position 4: 4a - candles about i , ber y those , on ber ё ze , y nya. In the environment of soft [o] is pronounced with a high rise of the tongue, becomes closed and quite front vowels. The transcription is [Y o AND].

The phoneme (s) is not combined with the preceding soft (positions 3 and 4 ) . Position 1: 1a - with s n , b s to , w < strong> and lo , cop s then , in s move; 1b - s (letter name), s casting , s and , tent and and /strong> , t s . An open, non-liberalized vowel of the upper ascent of the untagged (mixed) series is pronounced. The final phase is characterized by and -shaped diphthongoid character. Transcription - [ s ].

Position 2: 2a - p s , sh and Th (For position 26 examples could not be found.) Under the influence of the subsequent soft [ s ] becomes somewhat more forward and less open. It is caused by and -diffusion of diphthongoid in the final phase. Transcription - [ s ].

The notation of the considered allophones of vowel phonemes under stress is presented in Table. 5.

Table 5. Allophones vowel phonemes under stress

Phoneme / Position

a

e

and

y

about

s

1. tat, at, ta

a

e

and

y

about

s

2. tat ', at'

a •

e

and

y

o

s

3. t'ot, t'a

• a

• e

and

• y

• o

-

4. t'at '

• a •

• e •

and

.u.

• o

-

The effect of a soft consonant on a vowel is that, first, it gives the vowel a diphthongoid character; second, it makes it more closed and more forward. Closeness and forehead formation increase from position 2 to position 4. In this case, only the front ones become [ a , e , o , y , s ]. In all cases, the progressive impact of the consonant is more significant than the regressive one.

Also We Can Offer!

Other services that we offer

If you don’t see the necessary subject, paper type, or topic in our list of available services and examples, don’t worry! We have a number of other academic disciplines to suit the needs of anyone who visits this website looking for help.

How to ...

We made your life easier with putting together a big number of articles and guidelines on how to plan and write different types of assignments (Essay, Research Paper, Dissertation etc)