SECTION IV. Phraseology
Some linguists (for example, DN Shmelev, FK Guzhva) consider phraseology within the framework of a single lexical-phraseological system, relating vocabulary and phraseology to one level of language. Others (for example, VN Telia, RN Popov) see in vocabulary and phraseology, as it were, different levels, different systems that, although they have internal connections among themselves, operate with different language units: words and phrases, respectively. In this connection, Academician VV Vinogradov wrote at one time that "much attention is paid to the scholastic question, whether the phraseological constructions form a" level "(as if it were a bureaucratic term like an officer rank in the pre-revolutionary military hierarchy) or a" subsystem " language (or even "layer" it), etc. [Vinogradov, 1969. P. 19]. It all depends on the understanding of the term level : generally accepted or special, copyright.
CHAPTER 17. The concept of phraseology and phraseology
§ 1. Types of phraseological units and their features
By definition, given in the "Linguistic Encyclopedic Dictionary", phraseological unit (phraseological unit) is the general name of the semantically related combinations of words and sentences that ... are reproduced in speech in a fixed relationship of the semantic structure and a certain lexico-grammatical composition " ; i.e. these are phrases and sentences that, with closely related components, are used in speech in a finished form, rather than being recreated as usual phrases and sentences.
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However, the understanding of phraseological units, their distinctive features is not the same for many linguists. So, in terms of the degree of semantic component fusion, phraseological units are divided into several types. The most famous and popular is their classification, proposed by Academician V. V. Vinogradov. This includes the following phraseological units: phraseological fusion, phraseological unity, phraseological combinations and phraseological expressions.
Phraseological fusion is a stable word combination, the values of which do not follow from the values of their constituent components. The unmotivated nature of their meanings is similar to the unmotivated meaning of words, the underlying principles of which can not be determined without an etymological analysis. Thus, only etymologically in the verb bezrezhit one can single out the producing basis breez - the dawn and the suffix - , in the adjective important - the generating basis of var and the suffix -нн - , in the noun the rope is the generating basis of the and the diminutive suffix -кк ( а ). Examples of phraseological fusion: Goose Goose , blowing beast , balustrade steroosovy , beat buckets , , the curve will take out , squeeze all the blades , the dog will eat , in the whole of Ivanovo , break the head , get trapped , give the oak , take on the arab , the Achilles' heel , upside down.
You can take any phraseological fusion to be sure of its syntactic non-dissociation, i.e. in the impossibility of identifying in the phraseological fusion some of the members of the proposal. Only in their full composition they perform a certain syntactic function: - Well, you , guy , what you sit-mo , , podi-ka bring firewood (G. Uspensky). Without homework , hoped , what the curve will take out (Yu. Bondarev). In the first sentence, we can not consider the word lyas as a complement to the verb sharpen: the phrase generally acts as a predicate. In the second sentence, the phrase the curve will take out is also not broken up into the subject and the predicate, but acts as a verbal member of the single-sentence sentence.
Phraseological unity is a stable word combination, which, although semantically and indivisibly, but in them - unlike phraseological fusion - there is a portability of meaning. In other words, in figurative connections, imagery is felt, metaphoricity: "rush on all pairs", seven Fridays in a week. Of course, in the first case we can talk about the rapid movement not only and not so much by means of steam, in the second - by the word Friday means contradictory decisions made by someone in a short time.
Phraseological unity can be in a living semantic connection with free phrases and correlated with them in meaning. Compare: Take the bull by the horns - start to act energetically, decisively and immediately from the main and take the bull by the horns - touching the bulls with the horns; do nothing - sometimes there is no way out, otherwise you can not do anything and have nothing to do - there is no business. More examples of phraseological unity: measure your arshin , glow the atmosphere , grandmother in two said , mouse fuss , to heal the wound , from the fat to rage , beat the target , hurt the soul , fight yourself >, take a tug , pull yourself together , throw to the wind , is not important.
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Phraseological unity, like phraseological fusion, can also not be syntactically divisible and appear in the sentence in the role of a member only in its entirety. So, in the sentence I firmly kept myself in the hands the selected phrase can not be syntactically synthesized, because only in general it performs the function of the predicate. In the sentence I married , and the vaunted honeymoon (L. Tolstoy), the selected phrase, taken only completely, can be considered as a subject.
In view of the fact that phraseological fusion and phraseological unity are not only equated to a single word by a syntactic role, but also are not semantically broken up, they are called idioms.
Phraseological combinations are stable word combinations, one of whose components has free value, and the second one is associated, ie, It is manifested only when used with the second component. So, the adjective. muscular is used only with the noun young lady and only in this combination it makes sense to "effeminate, unapproachable person." The noun baba has the value snowman only in conjunction with the adjective. Snowy. The verb take means "start writing about anything". only in conjunction with the prepositional-nominal combination of per pen.
Here are some examples of phraseological combinations: Babylonian tower , Siamese twins , God>
One of the components of phraseological combinations can have, though not a single, yet limited compatibility. For example, the verb to bear - to explode in the meaning of worry - excite can only be combined with the nouns soul , blood , heart ( take the soul , take blood , to bear the heart ). It is possible to say, of course, to bear - to wake ( old ) wound , but in this case the verb has a different meaning - "Touching on what caused someone a heartache." The verb erect - build is combined with three nouns: cult , vain, slander , and in each case a phraseological combination with its meaning is formed: erect - build up a cult - to exaggerate the role, the meaning of something, to consider it an ideal, making it the object of veneration, compliance; erect - build up a vain - it is false to blame anyone for anything; erect - erect slander - slander, spread libel to someone. The noun stuff is used only with the pronoun every , forming with it a phraseological combination with the meaning of "anything; the most different. "
Unlike phraseological fusion and phraseological unity, phraseological combinations are semantically divisible. It should also be noted that phraseological combinations, unlike phraseological unity, do not correspond to free phrases.
Phraseological expressions are stable phrases with a rethought content of the type Do not have a hundred rubles , but have a hundred friends. Not all modern linguists recognize proverbs and sayings as phraseological.>
In the second half of XX century. there have been attempts to restrict the concept of "phraseology". Characteristic in this respect, for example, are the views of the drafters of the first Phraseological Dictionary of the United States Language Ed. AI Molotkova. They do not agree with the criteria of definition of phraseology at that time. In the preface to this dictionary, his scientific editor writes: "As the criteria for determining phraseology in the United States language are called in various combinations stability , the integrity of the value , not derived from the sum of the values of its constituents words, separatelyform , the possibility of structural variations , or neoplasms , reproducibility , untranslatability to other languages .. In phraseology, there is metaphoricity , imagery , expressive-emotional coloring , etc.
Meanwhile, the analysis of the phraseological units of the United States language from the side of meaning, form and usage allows us to state that none of these attributes, either alone or in combination with others, is a categorical, defining, distinctive, differential sign of phraseology. The authors consider three such categorical signs of phraseology: lexical meaning , component composition , the presence of grammatical categories. Two of these signs - lexical meaning and grammatical categories bring together phraseology and word. For example, they can act as synonyms: bombard - fire , one-at-a-time - simultaneously , blow bubbles - drown. Phraseological units, like words, are able to enter into any kind of syntactic connection with other members of the sentence. 1. Alignment: My, your affair small ; I have not heard , that such grated rolls , such shooting sparrows were corrected (K. Fedin). 2. Management: Grandfather will give to you heat (I. Aramilev). I do not hold your heart , and you on me do not hold (G. Nikolaev). 3. Adjunction: It was a quick temper in conjunction with his old hussar habit of giving free rein to the hands (L. Tolstoy); Do not do anything , we work later sleeves (S. Antonov).
In the opinion of the compilers of the dictionary we are considering, phraseology on any of the categorical features does not correlate with the phrase (meaning free phrases). However, it remains unexplained why such a feature can not be a component composition that distinguishes the one and the other language unit from a word that is one-component. In addition, components in free and non-free phrases can be replaced. In essence, each component of phraseology can vary. Compare: God grant memory (memory) , at least die (die) ; sharpen lashes (balyas) , bend (break) the back (hump) ; that there is strength ) and in all force ), throw light on that and shed light on that .
It seems that apart from such categorical attributes as lexical meaning, component composition and the presence of grammatical categories, which are inherent in all phraseological units, a significant part of them are inherent in those semantic-structural features that are rejected by the compilers of the phrase dictionary of the United States language. This is the stability, let the relative, and therefore, the reproducibility, the integrity of the value, not deducible from the sum of the values of its constituent components, and its metaphoricity, separatelyform, expressive and emotional coloring. Not to mention one more (also general and very important) syntactic feature of phraseological units - acting as a single member of the proposal. In the role of the predicate: Because of what people are climbing the wall (I. Isakov); additions: There were transparent days of Indian summer (G. Markov); circumstances: But after all, all this will be paid off with great interest during the way through (A. Chakovsky).
A more narrow understanding of phraseological units is often confined to recognizing only idioms as such; phraseological fusion and phraseological unity. For example, VM Mokienko in the preface to the Dictionary of United States Phraseology writes: "In the body of the dictionary included primarily phraseological units in the narrow sense of the word, i.e. United States idiomatics and those international turns that are characterized by relative stability, reproducibility in ready-made form, integral meaning and expressiveness. " However, supporters of the narrow, "idiomatic" approach to phraseology does not reveal a sequence in the position. Thus, the proverb also includes proverbs, stable compound terms, nomenclatural word combinations, paraphrases, and winged words. For example: the joy of Russia is piti , the best enemy of good , the master of doom , the power of darkness , the green wave , nothing lasts forever under the moon. The arguments put forward to justify the expansion of the vocabulary are worthy of attention: the diachronic direction of this lexicographic publication, finding the phraseological fund in statu nascendi (in the state the reserves of its replenishment are the "border zones", which include "stable combinations of various types", the commitment of many researchers to a broad understanding th phraseology general reader interests in turnover, has long been referred to as sayings in the broadest sense of the word.
Thus, the theory of idiomatics with its practical implementation, for example in the compilation of dictionaries, encounters the resistance of a particular material, supported by various extralinguistic factors.
With all the incompatibility among linguists in the understanding of phraseological units, with different interpretations of semantically related phrases and sentences reproduced in speech in a fixed state, all of their totality, available in the language, is called phraseology. The same name has a section of linguistics, which discusses phraseological units from the point of view of their semantics, systemic connections, origin, temporal movement in the language, latitude of distribution, sphere of use, stylistic coloring. Now let us turn to the consideration of those "border zones", the components of which are not recognized by all as phraseological units.
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