Problems. Features of the architectonics of plays. Characterology...

Problems. Features of the architectonics of plays. Characterology


All the major plays of Chekhov are connected by one central problem, on which the playwright's attention has turned out to be concentrated: the fate of the United States intelligentsia is somehow the basis of their conflicts. Several in Chekhov's dramatic heritage are "The Seagull": this play is mainly about art and about people of art, for the simple reason that the central people in it are precisely people of art. All the talk and the action itself, the events are grouped around the theater and literature, the most vital issues are those that are actualized by art: talent and mediocrity, successes and sacrifices brought for success, and victims of failure; the processes of creativity on theatrical stage and at the writer's desk, etc. In this sense, the Seagull - most personal of all Chekhov's plays. There are a lot of introspection, hard-won thoughts about writing, starting with reflections on concrete methods of the writer's work and ending with reflections on the deep laws of creativity: affirming the need to search for new forms that resist routine and imitation; fixing the difficulties encountered by innovators, who are met with hostility by the zealots of traditions ("Decadent!") throws Arkadin in the heart to his son in response to the first introductory phrases of his new play, refusing even to listen more attentively to it); and the like.

In the characters often recognized himself Chekhov. For example, in the characterization of Trigorin the prose writer (Treplev's observations on the features of the image of nature), the landscape from Chekhov's "Wolf" (1886). I'm not a landscape painter only ... makes us recall Chekhov's frequent admissions of the artist's responsibility to life, appearing in his stories, beginning with "baubles" Antoshi Chekhonte ( Marya Ivanovna ), and in the epistolary heritage. Reflections of Treplev on the idea, which determines the true merits of the work of art, are echoed in Chekhov's letter to AS Suvorin: "The old masters, like juice, are permeated with a sense of purpose. You feel that they call somewhere, that they have an idea, like the shadow of Hamlet, which was not without reason appeared ".

An expressly constructed conflict Seagulls ". The grouping of characters is created by the author on the principle of contrast contrasting, even a sharp contrast of two situations and actors colliding with each other. Such are Trigorin and Treplev in the play: both writers; the first is a celebrity, he has long since acquired all-United States fame, the second is a debutant, he is just beginning to notice magazines and criticism. Trigorin accompanies a sense of peace, self-confidence, which, however, requires him to continually work to keep the glory gained through intense effort. Treplev rushes in search of his path, now and then comes in despair and eternally unhappy with what comes out of his hand.

Exactly the same construction in the form of a kind of parallel of contrasting characters and destinies - Arkadina and Nina Zarechnaya. The first is a recognized actress, accustomed to worship, a true master of the stage, with human shortcomings inherent in this environment (focused solely on herself and on her successes), but also with personal, not quite sympathetic traits: miserly, keeps the son in a black body , refuses to him in insignificant material assistance, carefully, carefully designed his relations with Trigorin. The second is a girl full of enthusiasm and youthful illusions, who rushes into the service of the theater as if in a whirlpool, little imagining what kind of trials she is waiting for along the way, and only after two years of martyrdom on the stage and constant setbacks does she finally feel if not ashore , then the solid ground under your feet, realize yourself as an actress.

The dramatic development in the play of the love storyline, also thanks to the clearly maintained principle of contrasting constructions. Trigorin and Arkadina with long-established relationships are contrasted with Treplev with his painful and hopeless love for Nina Zarechnaya, and she herself, also passionately carried away by Trigorin, who does not give Treplev the hope of a reciprocal response. Nina was not sobered by the catastrophe that she had to endure: she was still at the mercy of a love affair. But Treplev is dying: the writer's career is difficult, he considers himself a failure; absence of love, cordial affection, sense of spiritual impasse finally knock him out of the rut; in the finals, after a meeting with Nina, he shoots, repeating the fate of Ivanov from the previous Chekhov play.

Two plot lines are complicated by a similar concomitant double intrigue: Shamrayeva's carefully hidden relationship (the wife of the estate manager) and Dr. Dorn, and for no one is Masha Medvedenko's secret hobby, this time also unrequited, by Treplev.

At some point, the problems and features of the architectonics found by Chekhov in the "Seagull" will vary in his subsequent dramaturgic works. Uncle Vanya and Three Sisters - plays about lost hopes and destroyed destinies of people who, in the name of higher goals, "have been imprisoned" yourself in the province, finding yourself in a vital and spiritual impasse.

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