Realistic literature at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries...

1.1. Realistic literature at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries

Realism at the turn of the century continued to be a large-scale and influential literary trend: suffice it to say that in the 1900s. still lived and worked LN Tolstoy and AP Chekhov. Among the new realists, the most brilliant talents were writers who united in the 1890s. in the Moscow circle "Wednesday", and in the pachala of the 1900s. who formed the circle of permanent authors of the publishing house "Knowledge", one of the owners and the actual leader of which was M. Gorky. In addition to the leader of the association, LN Andreev, IA Bunin, VV Veresaev, NG Garin-Mikhailovskii, AI Kuprin, IS Shmelev, and others joined him in different years. For With the exception of Ivan Bunin, there were no major poets among realists, they showed themselves primarily in prose and, less noticeably, in drama. The influence of this group of writers was largely explained by the fact that they inherited the traditions of the great United States literature of the 19th century. However, the immediate predecessors of a new generation of realists already in the 1880s. seriously updated the face of the direction. Especially important for the next generation of realists was the experience of Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (1860-1904).

Chekhov's world includes a variety of diverse human characters, but for all the individuality of its characters are similar in the main: all they lack is something of the most important. Neither love, nor passionate service to science or social ideals, nor faith in God - none of the previously reliable means of acquiring integrity can help the hero. The world in its perception has lost a single center. This world is far from hierarchical completeness and can not be shared by any of the worldview systems. That is why life on any ideological pattern, the world outlook based on a fixed system of social and ethical values, is interpreted by Chekhov as vulgarity: vulgar is life, repeating patterns prescribed by tradition, devoid of spiritual independence. None of the Chekhov's heroes have unconditional rightness, therefore Chekhov's type of conflict looks unusual: comparing heroes on one or another trait, Chekhov often does not give preference to one of them. It is important to him not to "moral inquiry", but to find out the reasons for the mutual misunderstanding between people, therefore the author refuses to be the accuser or the lawyer of his heroes.

Various moral, ideological and stylistic contrasts in Chekhov's world lose their absolute character, they become relative. For example, Chekhov's characters can only be distributed with very serious reservations in proportion to their importance - on the main and minor. The same lack of sharpness is observed in the event organization of works: in its plots there is no clear division into bright, culminating, and passing, preparatory episodes. Moreover, in the eventual perspective of the work, both what happened and what did not happen is equally important: an event for Chekhov may be the absence of an event.

In a word, Chekhov's world is a world of mobile relationships, a world where different subjective truths interact. In such works, the role of subjective reflection increases. Constantly refined, grinning to each other, multidirectional ideas. Constantly looking back at their lives heroes - carriers of subjective truths. The author well controls the tonality of his assessments: it can not be unconditionally heroic or recklessly satirical. As the recognizable Chekhovian tonality is perceived by the reader a subtle lyrical irony.

Thus, the generation of writers-realists of the early 20th century. inherited from Chekhov new principles of writing - with much greater authoritarian freedom than before, with a much wider arsenal of artistic expressiveness, with a mandatory sense for the artist of the measure that was provided increased internal self-criticism and autoreflexion. This allowed the criticism of the beginning of the century to start talking about a new stage in the development of realism - neo-realism, the main features of which were manifested in different ways in the works of IA Bunin, AI Kuprin, IS Shmelev, BK Zaitsev,

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