Samuel Beckett: the beginning of the road, "Waiting for Godot"...

Samuel Beckett: The Beginning of the Way

Samuel Beckett (1906- 1989) lived a long life, working in different genres, but found himself as a playwright and gained fame, already approaching a half-century boundary. If Ionesco was a native of Romania, Beckett came from Ireland, where his childhood and youth years passed. He was fond of literature since childhood and, like his outstanding compatriots Bernard Shaw, Joyce, Shawn O'Kasey, left his homeland, where he was depressed by the provincialism of cultural life and spiritual lack of freedom.

Like many of his colleagues in Peru, in particular the "New Romans", he was widely educated, well-read in the literature of modernist orientation, especially French, and, most importantly, was fascinated by philosophy, such as its coryphaeus, Descartes, Pascal, Schopenhauer. This not only enriched him with special knowledge. The main thing - and this is a special aspect of his artistic thinking - the ability to view specific phenomena, situations, plots in a broad philosophical context. Individuality is the concretization of universality, and each individual action at the same time is individually ", he wrote.

Therefore, the story that manifests as Destiny and Case, is actually the result of < strong> Necessities. This thought was the pathos of many of his compositions, but above all, dramas.

In the 1920s. Beckett firmly established himself in Paris. There he became acquainted with the author himself, "Ulysses", became his admirer, for a short time his secretary, but then their paths parted. The first work Beckett wrote in English, then switched to French. Like Ionesco, he paid much attention to literary criticism. One of his main works in this area was called " Dante ... Bruno ... Vico ... Joyce (1929). It draws attention to the breadth of the phenomena covered - from the creator of the "Divine Comedy" to the creator of "Ulysses", already perceived as a living classic. The great novel in the genre-thematic plan Becket considered in the main foreshortening, his innovation as the embodiment of philosophical ideas in artistic creation. At the same time he proceeded from the conviction: in reality there are good and evil, and their indissolubility is the source of life's movement and development. In his study "Proust" he analyzed the dualism of spiritual and carnal principles. But if they were usually opposed to each other, Beckett proceeded from the fact that they, in fact, are in a complex internal relationship.

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Some of the novels ( Murphy & quot ;, Wott & quot ;, , a trilogy consisting of novels Malloy "," Malon dies "," Unnamed "). They already have the motives and images typical of his plays: single, often dying spiritually and physically characters wandering aimlessly; space is deserted, devoid of concreteness, a common gloomy tonality.

"Waiting for Godot": the birth of the antiterror

Beckett's first-born in the dramatic genre, this play, which had a sensational success and was recognized by the classics. It marked the formation and birth of the theater of the absurd. In this two-act play, everything was unexpected and fresh, beginning with a scene almost devoid of scenery with only one tree, an indefinite time of action, eccentricity of the two main heroes, Vladimir and Estragon. They have no past, social and psychological traits, they appeared from nowhere and move in anywhere. Both are hopelessly lonely, suffering from disease and hunger. There are two more episodic characters in the play - Pozzo and Lucky, their roles are polar. One solves, the other obeys. The endless conversations between Vladimir and Estragon revolve around a single topic - the coming of a certain Godot. The process of his meaningless waiting and composing the plot of the play. In this regard, it is associated with the waiting theater Maeterlinck, whose impulses, as emphasized, animated the antidram. But the long-awaited Godot never appears. Waiting for the characters are even ready to hang themselves. Who is this mysterious character? There was an opinion that it was about God; because the word Godot is consonant with English God - God. Such an interpretation is possible, but not indisputable. Beckett's play, due to the extreme generalization and hidden symbolism, is distinguished by a multilevel semantic content. For example, Vladimir and Estragon, sick and decrepit, symbolize the ailments that hit modern civilization. The play, like many other samples of the antiterror, has an open ending: it provides an opportunity for the viewer, actor, director to fantasize about the future of the characters and the significance of the work as a whole.

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In the play - the basic elements of Beckett's drama. His heroes are often defective, almost crippled, bruised physically and morally, and therefore inactive. Hence the static, inaction, determining the atmosphere of his dramas. And behind all this is Beckett's idea of ​​a world that is meaningless and illogical, in which it is so uncomfortable and unhappy with a person.

In the play Endgame the protagonist Hamm is chained to a wheelchair. His life routes are closed in the four walls of the room without furniture. His monologues are utter longing, irritation, bitterness. The title of the play indicates its final, not just a chess game or a play. It is the same for millions - "hunger, cold, after all, death." In another play in two acts with an ironic title & Happy Days (1960) the situation is more than original. The main character, Vinny, A 50-year-old woman, a blonde with a low neckline, in a hat, with an umbrella, is lying on her chest in the ground. Despite the unnaturalness of such a state, she is full of cheerfulness, constantly pricks up, cute chatter, recalls the past "happy days", rejoicing in the opportunity to communicate with Willie, her husband, another flawed character , which appears from time to time, being hidden behind the hill.

In the second act, Winnie is already covered with sand around her neck. She can not move her head, but she is still cheerful, trying to find a response from Willie, who is paying less attention to her. As her usual smile disappears, the reader is overcome by an irresistible sadness. The heroine, which sucks in the sand, symbolizes the very loneliness, the very low of life.

A typical Beckett character is in the center of the one-act play The Last Crappa Ribbon (1956). It's a lonely old man, deaf, with a cracked voice, moving with difficulty.

He talks to himself and turns on the tape recorder, listens to his voice, inconsistently retelling the events of a past life. Then there was the "hope for happiness". But Krepp is so old, so weak that he can not return the former. The pinched note of hopelessness completes this and other plays of Beckett. The same applies to his play Not me (1972). On an absolutely dark scene you can see only the face flashed by the ray, or rather, the mouth. Conscious of the insurmountable absurdity, this mysterious character tries to overcome not by action, but by non-stop verbalization, full of despair, but almost devoid of content.

Becket's originality was appreciated. In 1969, he became a Nobel laureate. As a great artist, he confessed that he had to repeat himself, that he was doomed to a continuous search and experiment. The influence of the theater of the absurd, originated in France, has taken on an international dimension: the British Tom Stoppard and Harold Panther, Edward Albee (USA), Gunter Grass (Germany), Slawomir Mrozek (Poland), Vaclav Havel (Czech Republic). The last, the playwright, and later the well-known human rights activist and president of the Czech Republic, belong to the words: "It seems to me that if the theater of the absurd did not exist, I should have invented it."

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