Segmental units - Introduction to linguistics

Segment units

§ 168. Segmental, or linear, units of word-formation are certain parts (segments) of derivative words that can be represented in the form of known series, lines. These include, first of all, generating the foundations and derivational (word-building) morphemes. The first are called derivational, word-forming, derivational, motivating, basic bases, the latter - derivational morphemes. The underlying part of the derived word is the basic part of the derived word that is common to the lexical basis of the original, producing the word, which is the formal (material) and semantic center of the derivative, semantically motivates the derivative. A derivational morpheme can be defined as a service morpheme used as part of a derivative word as a word-building tool and changing, specifying the value of the producing basis, or generating word. By word-forming means, this means an external, formal indicator of the derived word that distinguishes a given derivative from a generating word or phrase.

Derivative morphemes in many languages ​​(including United States) are the most important word-building tool. Along with word-building morphemes, other, asemantic (not expressing meanings) parts (segments) of words, such as connecting vowels (or, more broadly, connecting elements), interfixes (in more detail, when discussing morphomics, in § 80 and later). Segmental word-building means are contrasted with often used in some languages ​​non-segmental (supersegmental, supersegmental, supersegmental, suprasegmental, or nonlinear) word-formation means, for example, verbal stress, alternation of phonemes, etc.

Among the word-building means, the basic and additional (secondary, accompanying), accompanying fixed assets differ. Basic word-building tools are mandatory for each derived word of a certain word-building structure, this or that way of word-formation. These are such word-formation means that can appear in the derivative word as the only ones and which directly participate in the expression of their meanings. In United States, they include word-formative affixes (prefixes, suffixes, postfixes), flexion, more precisely, the system of endings of the derived word (in the absence of the word-forming suffix or postfix), a single main verbal stress (or, more simply, stress, stress) as, for example, in words evergreen, unfamiliar, high school, city executive committee, nurse (for more details see below, in § 171). Additional word-building means are considered such formal signs of derivative words that can not act in the derivative word as single, always accompany the fixed assets, are optional (in some derived words are used, and in other similar formations are absent) and do not participate in the expression of the values ​​of derived words. These include, for example, the inflection of a derivative word (if it contains a word-forming suffix or postfix), connecting elements, various morphological phenomena-alternation of phonemes, truncation of bases, interfixation, etc.

As part of the derived word, one producing basis or two or more bases can be used. In this regard, along with the term producing basis The term "generating base" is used to denote a separate generating basis of a derived word or a combination of several producing bases (or words) that are part of the same derived word, for example, the stem of the verb teach in the noun the teacher, the basis of the adjective blue as a part of the verb blue, a combination of different bases in complex words like reinforced concrete, flax fiber, snow-white, 25 year old , etc. Similarly, in the composition of many products There are not one words but two or more derivational morphemes or other non-morphological word-building means used. In connection with this, the term word-formative formant & quot ;, or word-formative format & quot ;, which is used to denote a single word-formation means or a set of word-formation means used in the same derived word is used, for example, a combination of the word-building prefix and the suffix in the derivatives words windowsill, pre-war, prefix and postfix in the words sleep, run , etc. (in more detail - when explaining the ways of word formation).

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