Systemic relations of consonant phonemes - Modern US literary language

Systemic relations of consonant phonemes

The system of United States consonants includes 35 phonemes: /b , b <, n , n <, in , in ', φ , φ' , b , , t , t ', s , s' , c , c <, x , w , , and , r , r <, k , k ', x , x , m , m ', n , n' , n , n ', p , p' , j /. They are connected by oppositions on five differential signs, uniting into three groups: constitutive, correlative and relative.

Constitutive signs (ie, the basic, defining) are the distinctive features of consonants in place and mode of education. They reflect the nature of consonants as sounds of localized. This articulatory characteristic of consonants.

Correlative characteristics , i.e. correlative, is voiced-muffled and hard-soft. On these grounds, most consonants are couples. Correlative characteristics are associated with the main alternations of consonant phonemes.

a) Correlation of voicelessness-deafness is peculiar only to noisy consonants. Of the 26 noisy 22 come in pairs and 4 are the extra-steam deaf.

Table 2. Correlation of voiced voices

Ringtones

b

b '

in

in '

d

d '

Z '

g

r '

-

-

-

-

Deaf people

n

n '

F '

t

t '

with

with '

to

to '

w

ц

h

x

x '

Between voiced and deaf, there are articulatory, acoustic and compatibility differences. Articulatory is due to the vocal cords. Acoustic difference is that deaf ones are pure noises, and in sonorous sounds, noise is superimposed on the basic tone of the voice. Compounding differences, in general, are as follows. Deaf consonants can be found at the end of a word (/club n /, /cro f '/ , /but sh /), including the end of the word not before voiced at the junction of words (/club pa hidden/, /mountain t course/). Ringing at the end of the words can only stand at the junction of the words before the ringing: /ch'az dn'a /. Inside the word in front of the deaf can only be deaf (/lo t ka/), and ringing ones - just before ringing (/from b a/). Inside the word before the vowels, sonants /m , m ', n , n' , p , p ', n , n' , j/ and before /in/ and /in '/ can be both voiceless and voiceless: / w ar/, /< strong> g ar/, / cl op/, / g om/, /a bm en/, / p'j with/, / b'j y/, / sv 'ist/, / ul at' /. Thus, there are positions in which there can only be deaf (at the end of the word, except the position before voiced, inside the word before the deaf) or only voiced (inside words before ringing and on sham ke before the voices). Such positions are weak on the basis of voiced-deafness. At the same time, there are positions in which both sonorous and deaf (inside the word before the vowels, sonants, /in/and/in \ /> ). Such positions are strong.

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Table 3. The system of United States consonant phonemes

Place of education/

Method of education

Labels

Front-line

Middle-language

Foreign languages ​​

Tooth

Forefront

Flush

Explosive

b

6 '

d

a '

g

r '

Ringtones

Noisy

n

n '

t

t '

to

to

Deaf people

Affricates

ц

h '

Deaf people

Slot

in

in '

3

Z '

Ringtones

F '

with

with '

w

x

x '

Deaf people

Flush

'm

m '

n

n '

Sonar

Slot

l

l '

7

Shivering

p

p '

Solid

Soft

Solid

Soft

Solid

Soft

Soft

Solid

Soft

b) The hardness-softness correlation covers all consonants. Out of 35 consonants, 30 enter pairs and 5 are extra-couples.

Table 4. Correlation of hardness-softness consonants

Solid

b

n

in

d

t

g

to

with

x

m

n

l

p

w

-

-

Soft

b '

n '

in '

F '

d '

t '

r '

to '

Z '

with '

x '

m '

n '

l '

p '

-

-

-

h '

j

Between hard and soft consonants there are articulatory, acoustic and compatibility differences. Articulation differences are associated with the work of the middle part of the back of the tongue. Soft are palatalized, solid are characterized by a lack of palatalization. Acoustic differences of solid and soft are not the same for different groups of consonants. Soft slit and trembling are characterized by a formant softness (amplification in the spectrum of the frequency band from 2000 to 3000 Hz), solid, on the contrary, have a "formant" hardness (amplification of the frequency band from 1000 to 2000 Hz). Solid and soft stoppers have no significant spectral differences. (Acoustic characteristics are given with some simplifications.) The compatibility differences between soft and hard are not as distinct as in voiced and deaf people. Strong position they have position in the end of the word : /st l - hundred '/ , /n'o with - about with '/ /mr p - Ms. p '/ .

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In this position can not be /r ', k' , x '/. Also strong is the position of consonants inside words before /a , o , y /:/ p'a m/ (row ), /ka mo to/ (clot), /kl'uk vu / (cranberry). For /k ', r' , x '/ compatibility with these vowels is possible only in a few United States words ( >, tket ) and words of a foreign origin of the type gyus , cuvet , liquor. In strong positions, both members correlation. The position before /e/ is strong only in a limited number of cases, cf .: / m'e pa < (measure), / me p/, / c'e , / se p /. The matter is that paired solid ones can stand before / e / only in words of foreign origin of the type cafe , Parterre , prosthesis , model , energy , highway , dash etc. In primordially United States words, which naturally constitute the overwhelming majority of the vocabulary, only soft ones can be among the pairs entering before / e /: forest , fur , rare , seven , want , top , the sky and many others. other positions are positions before /and , s /. Before /and/ only soft consonants are possible / l'i tr/, /y b'y t '/ , /k < strong to ), before /s/ - only solid (/ dy m/ , / fish ba/, /n ly t '/ ). The very complex situation of the combination consonant + consonant in terms of strong and weak positions, we do not consider.

Relative signs of consonants are noise and sonority. Of the 35 consonant phonemes, 26 refer to noisy and 9 to sonorous (sonants): /m , m ', n , n' , n , n ', p , p' , j /. There are acoustic and compatibility differences between noisy and sonants. The acoustic differences are that the sonants, having a clear formant structure, are thus converging with the vowels, while the noisy ones, not having this property, are typical consonants. Convergence differences boil down to the fact that noisy, represented by subclasses of voiced and deaf, are characterized by connected compatibility (see above about their weak positions). Sonants have no weak positions and in this sense are characterized by free compatibility. It is also essential that sonants stand outside the correlation of voicelessness-deafness, although they articulate and acoustically belong to voiced ones.

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