Definition of terminology
§ 149. The term terminology in modern linguistics is used in different meanings. In accordance with the structure of this term (it is a combination of the word the term and the Greek logos - the word, the doctrine), it denotes the doctrine of terms, the section of linguistics (lexicology) dealing with the study of terms , or the corresponding scientific (scientific and applied) discipline. However, in this sense, the term is rarely used.
In recent times, some linguists have used the term "terminology" to describe this concept.
Terminology in linguistics is often called a set of terms used in a particular language or in a certain sphere of people's activities.
In the latter meaning, i.e. to denote the concepts of a particular area of knowledge or any field of activity, it is often used a composite term "terminological system" or the complex formation of the "terminology-based system" created on its base.
§ 150. In the understanding of the term as a unit of terminology, or an element of a terminology system, the views of linguists differ significantly, which is reflected in the definition (explanation) of this concept by different scientists.It is quite clear that the term, as well as any other sign language unit, has an exponent or signifier, and content, or signified, but the view of the exponent and content of the terminological sign is different for researchers.
An exponent of a terminological unit is traditionally considered to be a word, although most modern linguists regard not only a single word as an exponent of the term, but also a combination of different words, more precisely, a phrase. In the definition of the term as the closest generic concept, some scientists call, respectively, the word (see, for example, the works of RA Budagov, AA Reformatsky, MI Fomina, NM Shanskii), others - word or combination of words, word combination, expression, compound name, etc. (see the works of OS Akhmanova, BN Golovin, AV Kalinin, VI Kodukhov, R. Yu. Kobrin, and others). Now, it seems, no one doubts that the term can be not only a single word, but also a phrase, although there is no complete clarity on the question of which particular word combinations can be terms, and which are not terms (for more details see below).
There is no unity of opinion on the question of the morphological properties of the term, its partial affiliation. Some linguists recognize the terms only nouns and substantive phrases, i.e. word-combinations with a reference word-a noun, others do not consider this attribute mandatory for the term, ie. recognize the meaningful words of different parts of speech and the phrases based on them, called compound terms. In modern linguistics, the first point of view prevails, which seems more convincing.
According to AI Moiseyev, for example, the "language form of expression of terms are nouns and phrases based on them". According to him, "terms are words and phrases of strictly nominative function, namely, a certain type of nouns and phrases based on them," is a strictly nominative part of special and general vocabulary and phraseology in the form of nouns and word-combinations on their base & quot ;. The legitimacy of such a view of the term is confirmed, in particular, by the fact that "nominative function in the strict sense is possessed only by certain categories of nouns and stable combinations based on them." As for the words of other parts of speech, they have an indirect relation to terminology. According to BN Golovin, terms are limited to "the properties of parts of speech: the adjective, the verb, the adverb are included in terminological relations not independently, but through the noun of the noun."
To composite (two-word and verbose) terms usually refer only to subordinate word combinations, i.e. word combinations with subordinate connection of components. At the same time, in the works of some authors, not only subordinate but also word-combinations are considered among composite terms, such as: space and time, language and consciousness, word and concept. Some linguists, theoretically denying belonging to the terms of the word-combinations, are practically recognized by their terms. Thus, B. N. Golovin, who, in defining the concept of the term (see below), emphasizes the idea of the terminology of exactly the subordinate word combinations, in the terminological index placed in the textbook "Introduction to Linguistics", among the compound terms also calls the following phrases: the letter and sound, the units of the language and the units of speech, the meaning of the word and the object, the sentence and the judgment, the word and the thinking , and the like. Obviously, it should be recognized that such phrases denote not one but two different concepts and are not separate compound terms, but combinations of different terms.
The combination of words on the basis of a coherent connection equally identifies two concepts and an object simultaneously, which contradicts the logic and laws of the process of termination. With the help of such a terminological combination, we rather have a designation of the problem formulated by two independent terms as the relationship of two scientific phenomena. "
A distinctive feature of the meaning of the term, its signified, is that it has a professional meaning, designates a certain scientific, production, technical, etc. concept. This is recognized by all linguists dealing with the problem of the term, although the connection of the term with the concept of linguists is treated differently. In accordance with this, in the understanding (and definition) of the term, several concepts are distinguished: 1) the term is a word (or a phrase) that calls the concept, i.e. performs nominative function (GO Vinokur, EM Galkina-Fedoruk, etc.); 2) the term is the word that expresses the concept, i.e. performs an expressive, expressive function (AA Reformatsky, SM Burdin, etc.); 3) the term recognizes the word denoting the concept, i.e. fulfilling a significative function (EI Amosenkova, RN Infant'eva, NN Levinskii, etc.); 4) a term is a word that defines a concept, i.e. fulfilling a definitive function (V. V. Vinogradov, S. A. Askoldov, etc.).
In the special linguistic literature terms are often attributed to other characteristics, for example: uniqueness, i.e. the presence of no more than one value within the given terminology system; accuracy, stringency of the expression; semantic motivation; systemic, i.e. interrelation with other terms of a certain thermo-system; lack of synonymy; absence of homonymy; absence of emotionally expressive coloring, etc. Similar signs are manifested in terms extremely inconsistently: some of them are not peculiar to all terms, others spread not only to terms, but also to commonly used words and phrases, which many linguists pay attention to. All other attributes commonly attributed to terms and terminology in general: accuracy of meaning, unambiguousness, systemic, lack of synonymy, and the like. - no more than their tendency or their desirable qualities, or, finally, the requirements for "good" rationally constructed terminology. "
In determining the concept of a term, linguists are most often limited to pointing to the closest generic concept (ie a word or a word or phrase) and one of the essential distinctive features is the presence of professional significance. Terminology (from Latin terminus - "limit, limit") usually refers to words (or words and phrases) that have a special meaning, i.e. denoting special, professional concepts.
Compare, for example, the following definitions: Term ... A word that is the name of a certain notion of a. special field of science, technology & quot ;; The term is a word or phrase that is the name of a scientific, technical, agricultural, etc. concepts ", it is a" word or compound name created to denote the concept of science and technology, of different areas of knowledge. "
Taking into account the above-mentioned grammatical features (the substance of a word or word combination and the presence of a subordinate connection of the components of the phrase), the term can be defined as a word that is a noun or a subordinate word with a reference word - a noun, which designates a professional concept. This essentially definition can be formulated in a more concise form: the term is the name of a professional concept, expressed by a noun or a substantive phrase with the subordinate connection of components.
Recently, some linguists offer more complete, more extensive definitions of the concept of the term, seeking to take into account all of its features that the authors seem to be significant.
In understanding and explaining the term, the most difficult is the problem of the boundaries of a term. Within the framework of this problem, the issues related to the delineation of the term and the common word or word combination, the delineation of proper terms and nomenclatural names, nomenclatural marks, or iomens, which are usually understood as "names of typical objects of the given area of knowledge", remain questionable and still unresolved. , "names of typical objects of this science (in contrast to terminology, including the designation of abstract concepts and categories)." According to BN Golovin, to the number of "the most difficult in terminology" concerns the question of the boundaries of a compound term; on this issue in the literature are extremely opposed opinions.
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