Who was the author of the "Tale of the Host of Igor"? The name of the creator of the genius work has not yet been established, although the author constantly declares himself in the "Word", clearly expresses his political sympathies and antipathies, reveals a wide awareness of the events of his time and the past, speaks of his aesthetic notions.>
In relation to the author of the poem, scientists put forward and put forward a huge number of hypotheses, assumptions, guesses. However, these assumptions and hypotheses are not supported by a sufficient amount of factual material, because the "Word" came down to us in a single list, and the one did not survive.
Among the alleged authors of the "Tale of the Host of Igor" called the Galician wise singer Timothy, the syllabic singer of Mitus, the thousandth Raguil, the singer Khodyn, the chronicler Pyotr Borislavich and even Prince Igor himself, as well as the great Kiev prince Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich.
Among these numerous hypotheses, BA Rybakov's hypothesis is the most reasoned, supported by the linguistic analysis of the text of the chronicle of Peter Borislavich and the "Tale of Igor's Campaign."
A number of interesting considerations about the author Words was expressed by DS Likhachev in the article "Reflections on the author" of the Lay of Igor's Host. " The researcher assumes that the author participated in the campaign of Igor, outlined the history of this campaign in the annals, transferring the prince's cherished thoughts and at the same time, as a singer, he created the "The Lay of Igor's Host" and he wrote down his text.
Thus, the question of the author's name "The Tale of Igor's Campaign" still remains open and is waiting for its solution.
The Lay of Igor's Hostage and the medieval epic
The Lay of Igor's Hostage - All-United States literary monument. He stands at the origins of United States, Ukrainian and Belarusian literatures, revealing a typological commonality with the works of the medieval epic of both European and Asian peoples.
In terms of similarities and differences, "Words with the works of the European epic drew the attention of a number of researchers. But a remarkable monument of Old United States literature also reveals a typological commonality with the epic works of Asian peoples. It should be noted that this issue needs a thorough scientific study.
I want only to pay attention to the typological commonality of "The words about Igor's shelf" and the medieval epos of Turkic-speaking peoples - "Books of my grandfather Corkut, in the language of the Oguz tribe."
The central hero of the epic of the Middle Ages of both European and Asian peoples is the brave courageous warrior, the brave defender of his homeland. Such, for example, is the hero of the "Song of Roland", entering into an unequal battle with the Saracens, defending the boundaries of "cute France". He prefers death shame & quot ;. "Woe to him who is left behind!" He exclaims. Or the hero of the Spanish epic Sid - the "Song of My Side", struggling against the egoistic separatist policy of the feudal lords. Such are the Oguz heroes serving Bayudur-khan - "The Book of My Grandfather Corkuta"; or Tariel and Avtandil are the heroes of the poem Shota Rustaveli, "The Knight in the Panther's Skin," who believe that "life is shameful, it's worse than the death of a daredevil".The struggle for homeland against foreign invaders in the epic is ideologically interpreted as a struggle for faith against the Gentiles or non-believers. This is especially pronounced in the "Song of Roland" and the Turkic-speaking epic.
All works of the medieval epic inherent glorification of courage, military courage, physical strength, combat heroic deeds. Attention is drawn to the typologically common comparison of heroes with wild animals. For example, the knights rushed to the enemy, "growling like lions" ( Book of my grandfather Corkuta ). Compare in "The Word about Igor's Host": Rurik Rostislavich's retinues "growl like tours", "tour" is likened to the brother of Igor Vsevolod.
The heroes of the medieval epic are inseparable from their squad, the warriors who gain glory in battle by the rulers.
The idea of national unity in the epic is embodied by an ideal ruler, a monarch, a grand duke, a khan. Such is the "gray-bearded Carl" in the "Song of Roland", "the great formidable Kiev" Prince Svyatoslav in the "Word", Oguz ruler - Bayudur Khan in the "Book of my grandfather Corkuta", jungar - in the Kalmyk epic "Dzhangariada."
An important place in the epic work is assigned to the narrator-singer. He is usually endowed with a supernatural, magical power of song-singing. Such is the "prophetic Boyan" in the "Word", a prophetic singer in the Nogai-Kazakh epic poem about Yedigei. Korkut, a white-bearded old man, who sings to the accompaniment of a caboose, true surrender of the heroic past of the Oguzes ("The Book of My Grandfather Korkuta"), is the guardian of folk traditions, a wise adviser to the khan, beks and people. Representations about the singer as a sorcerer-shaman, prophet is also characteristic of Kazakh tales about Khorkhut. Typically close to them is the old wise Weinemeynen, magician and singer in the Karelo-Finnish epic "Kalevala". Ogrot-Mongols consider the singer of the heroic epic "Tulchy" the supernatural power, the custodian of the legends of the glorious past.
In a number of epic works, the singer constantly turns to listeners and keeps them always in his field of vision.
Attention is drawn to this feature of the epic of Turkic-speaking peoples, as the alternation of poetic and prosaic forms of narration. In this regard, the question is legitimate, and not based on such a principle, a narrative is constructed in the "Lay of Igor's Host"?
For all the typological commonality of the medieval epic of different nations, the unique features that each work reflects, reflecting the historical peculiarities of the national life of its people, are also important.
Most of the works of the medieval epic are devoted to the historical events remote from the time of its creation, transformed at times by folk tradition. Therefore, in a number of epic works there is a fantasy, hyperbolic fairy-tale images. In other significant elements of courtesy, entertaining. In the third, the cult of knightly honor, wars of conquest is glorified. The Lay of Igor's Hostage distinguished by a deep historicism, the absence of external interest. It is inherent in civilian pathos and nationality, expressed in defending the interests of peaceful creative work "Rataev - plowmen.
"The author of the poem," P. Pavlenko wrote, "is a warrior, politician and poet, an image alive and close to us." Political, civilian pathos in the "Lay of Igor's Hostage" organically merged with his artistic pathos, which makes this work immortal, allows him to constantly "preserve the character of modernity," as noted by the famous Polish poet Adam Mickiewicz.
The representative of every nation and nationality that inhabits our Russia can find in the "Word of Igor's Campaign" thoughts, feelings, images, consonant with the native epic, legends about the past of his people. In this regard, the words of VM Zhirmunsky deserve attention: "Observations of the epic creativity of the peoples of the Soviet Union that are alive, sung and created before our eyes can serve as a key to understanding the epic of the ancient and medieval".
Meaning of "The Lay of Igor's Hostage"
Political topicality, highly artistic folk form of expression provided "The Word of Igor's Regiment" immortality in the ages. It was popular among contemporaries and influenced the subsequent development of our literature. To Word the author of the "Zadonshchina" wrote, glorifying the victory of the United States people on the Kulikovo field.
Discovered at the end of the XVIII century., Word inspired A. N. Radishchev to create the "Song, the Petah in the competition in honor of the ancient Slavic deities." The appearance of the first printed edition of the "Tale of the Host of Igor" in 1800 made an immortal monument the property of new United States literature. Poetic imagery Words creatively mastered by poets and writers of the XIX century. Especially popular among romantic poets is the ancient United States bard, the nightingale of ancient years, as it was called at the beginning of the last century, Boyan. In it, we saw a sample of the "how the works of heroes chant". United States paints scooped up in the Word Apostle of United States Romanticism PA Katenin. Reminiscences from Words widely used AS Pushkin, M. Yu. Lermontov, N. V. Gogol. Pushkin remembered the ancient United States poem from beginning to end by heart. The poet intended to make a poetic translation of it, began, shortly before his death, work on commenting on the "Words" and proceeded to write the article "The Song of the Host of Igor." Word attracted the attention of poets V. Zhukovsky, A. Maykov, D. Minaev, N. Gerbel, I. Kozlov, L. Mey. Great interest was caused and called by "Word". among United States writers. A. N. Tolstoy, creating the trilogy "Walking through the Flours", refers to the "Word" and takes from him an epigraph for one part of the novel - "About the United States Land!", Ed. Bagritsky in the "Dome about Opanas" uses poetic images of an immortal monument.
New life has found the word during the Great Patriotic War. Ukrainian writer O. Honchar trilogy Standard bearers opens with an epigraph from the "Tale of the Host of Igor."
Poets and writers N. Zabolotsky, I. Novikov, V. Stelletsky, S. Shervinsky, N. Rylenkov, I. Shklyarevsky, A. Chernov created interesting translations "Words" to the modern language.
"The Word about Igor's Campaign," wrote the poet P. Antokolsky, "is an eternally blooming trunk, stretching the branches that are heavy from the fruit to the future. Therefore, we hear direct and indirect echoes of the "Words", roll calls with it in many works of our culture and art ... From the monument of antiquity it turns into the living heritage of creative culture ".
On the days of the 800th anniversary of the "Tale of the Host of Igor" the pages of our periodicals were inspired by the words of writers Valentin Rasputin, Boris Oleinik, Ales Adamovich and others. They emphasized the social political and artistic significance of the immortal poem, its modernity. Word and today it is read as a prayer for the future - the great Word of our ancestors. About children, grandsons, great-grandsons. About us with you. And about those to whom after us to be. If we let them be, by giving them the great Word about peace and brotherhood, "wrote the Belarusian writer Ales Adamovich.
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