Evolution of hagiographic literature
The process of secularization Old United States literature affected the transformation of such a sustainable genre as life. His canons, firmly entrenched by the Makarsky "Quiet Minsi", are destroyed by the intrusion of everyday realities, folklore legends from the XV century, as evidenced by the lives of John of Novgorod, Mikhail Klopsky. In the XVII century. life gradually turns into a household story, and then becomes an autobiography-confession.
The Tale of Julianne Lazarevskaya
Changes in the traditional genre of life are clearly traced in the "Tale of Julia Lazarevskaya". This story is the first in Old United States literature biography of a female noblewoman. It was written by the son of Julian Druzhina Osoirin, the forefather of the city of Murom, in the 20s and 30s of the 17th century. The author of the story is well acquainted with the facts of the biography of the heroine, his moral character, her human features, are dear to him. The positive character of a United States woman is revealed in the ordinary surroundings of a wealthy nobleman's estate.
The qualities of an exemplary mistress are brought to the forefront. After marrying the shoulders of young Juliana, the complex economy of the dvoryans' estate is laid. Catering to her father-in-law and her mother-in-law, to the sister-in-law, she monitors the work of slaves, for housekeeping; while it often has to settle social conflicts that arise between the court and the masters. These conflicts lead to an open revolt of slaves, which, however, is explained in the story by the traditional motive - the machinations of the devil. During this spontaneous upheaval, Julian's eldest son was killed. Resignedly obedient to Julian's misfortunes, which fall to her share. Twice she had to endure her terrible, hungry years: in her youth and in old age, when Juliania was forced to even let go of her slaves, so that they could get their own food.
The story truly portrays the position of a married woman in a large noble family, her lack of rights and numerous duties. Doing business so absorbs Julian that she is deprived of the opportunity to attend church, and yet she is "holy". The tale affirms the sanctity of the deed of a highly moral worldly life, serving people. Juliania will help the hungry, take care of the sick during the "mora", while she is "alms-free", she does not retain "" a single piece of silver. " This indicates that the former ascetic ideal of detachment from life has become a thing of the past, has lost its significance.
The Tale of Julian Lazarevsky creates an image of an energetic intelligent United States woman, an exemplary wife and mistress, with patience enduring the trials that bring her life down. Osorin depicts in the story not only the real features of his mother's character, but also draws the ideal face of a United States woman in the way he appeared to a United States nobleman of the first half of the 17th century.
In the biography of Julian Osorin does not yet completely depart from the hagiographic tradition, the beginning of the story is associated with it. Juliana comes from the "God-loving" and "beggarly" parents; she grew up in every kind of "blissful", "from the young nails of the god of love." In the character of Julian, the features of Christian meekness, humility and patience, pity and generosity ( "alms-boundless creating" ). As befits the Christian ascetics, Julian, although not going to the monastery, for old age, gives herself to asceticism: she refuses from carnal copulation with her husband, sleeps on the stove, putting the underbelief logs and keys are iron, walks in winter without warm clothes, > in boots barefoot feet, shod, under the nose, their nutshells and spine sharp instead of insoles lining and body Tomashe .
Uses Osorin and traditional for hagiography motifs of religious fiction: demons want to kill Julian, but the intervention of St. Nicholas will save her. In a number of cases, the "demonic machinations" have a very concrete domestic and even social outline. Such are the strife in the family, the rebellion of the slaves.
As befits a saint, Juliana foresees her own death and godly dies. Ten years later, her imperishable body, which works wonders, is found.
Thus, in the "Tale of Julian Lazarevskaya" closely intertwined elements of the everyday story with elements of the life of the genre, but the prevailing place is clearly already beginning to occupy the everyday narrative. The story is devoid of the traditional entry for life, lamentation and praise. Its style is quite simple. It reflects the clerical practice of the Muromian elderhead.
The Tale of Julian Lazarevsky - evidence of an increase in society and literature of interest in the private life of man, his behavior in everyday life. These realistic elements, penetrating the genre of life, destroy it and contribute to its gradual transformation into a genre of secular biographical story. The Tale of Julian Lazarevsky not an exception. Next to it is the Legend of the phenomenon of the Unzhen Cross, , dedicated to the legendary story of the creation of a cross for the Church of the Mihailoarchangels on the River Unge. It is associated with the fate of the loving sisters of Marfa and Mary, separated by the quarrel between their husbands. The plot plot - "scolding about the places" svoyaki: poor, but noble and rich, but ignorant. It reflects one of the features of life in the 17th century: the impoverishment of noble births and the emergence of a new nobility.
The plot is built on symbolic parallelism. The sisters simultaneously get married, at the same time their husbands die, and they decide to meet. The sisters see the same dream, as a result of which the angel gives Martha gold, and Mary the silver, which the sisters give to the three old men who came from Constantinople. An important place in the legend is occupied by everyday realities.
All this testifies to the process of destruction of canonical hagiographic genres. The pious ascetic monk, the central hero of the life, supersedes the secular hero, who begins to be portrayed in a real domestic setting.
The next step along the path of convergence of life with life will make Archpriest Avvakum in his famous life-autobiography.
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