Great Form Wizard
Dialectics of truth and artistic fictionA striking feature of Ostrovsky's dramaturgical technique is the following: his plays leave such an impression of what is being portrayed that involuntarily there arises the idea that they are not composed, but simply transfer the real life in its ethnographically exact episodes onto the stage, to such an extent they are close to reality itself and in detail details, and in general plot constructions. The famous replica of General AP Yermolov about the "Bankrupt": This play is not composed; she was born by herself! - just the thought of a theater lover, grasping the general impression of the direct impact of the work on the audience.
Meanwhile Ostrovsky's pieces are composed and written by the master's hard and skillful hand. The impression of the same reliability was not accidental.
First, Ostrovsky's life patterns are always typically United States: everyday life, language, characters. From this point of view, he is a purely national, not an international writer.
Secondly, Ostrovsky should be defined as the artist of life. His methods of creating characters and organizing plots are such that the author as if avoids the artificial devices worked out before him by dramaturgy for the most vivid influence on the audience: the absence subtly constructed intrigue, scenic effects, entertaining. Plots Ostrovsky simple and sometimes devoid, it seems, the action itself: stsapy, ordinary, everyday, slowly replace one another. The author seems to be not concerned with creating a dramatic drama of events, and they are on their way, when suddenly the viewer begins to realize that he has long been involved in the cycle of a terrificly intense drama, whether it's a comedy or a tragedy but to his character play.
This kind of dramatic technique evoked the idea of a detached, impartial author who, like Pushkin's hero, "good and evil listens indifferently" and is only a conscientious chronicler of life, not introducing into the image of the subjective beginning. However, such an opinion is false, since Ostrovsky is just a writer who passionately defends his position and makes his verdict of reality hostile to man.
With this internal contradiction of the creative manner of Ostrovsky (the objective picture of the world and the author's subjective principle hidden in it) another feature of his plays is related, which anticipates Chekhov's work: genre diffusion, uncertainty in the classification of works. Ostrovsky himself, remaining within the accepted traditions, called his plays, dividing them into two sections: dramas or comedies. In fact, the disconnecting union or has often been replaced by a connecting and, since tragedy and comedy are usually conjugated, rather than disconnected, as often happens in life itself. The comedic effect in the "Forest" does not remove the tragedy of Neschastlivtsev's position, and the tragic manifestation of Kruchinina's maternal feelings ("Guilty without guilt") is only emphasized by the grotesque antics of Shmagi. The tragedy of Erast Gromilov, who every time with his expressive cues and the endless drunken searches of his Vasya, is not preventing the author from entering the text of the play in the text of the play, not just a comedy, but a farcical figure. as it were, outlines the steps of the ever increasing tension of events.
Character Creation Principles
The playwright believed that the essence of the artist's activity is in the "development of characters and psychology". The absence of one-sidedness, the contradictory nature of the consciousness and actions of the hero is one of the mainstays of Ostrovsky's characterology. Even the so-called positive persons Are far from ideal representations about such characters which carry in themselves lines, reducing their impulses, good motives. These characters are often spineless people such as Korpelov (drama "Labor Bread"), Kiselyshkova ("The Creek"), drunkard and loser Lyubim Tortsov ("Poverty is not a vice"). These people are "bad and good together", as LN Tolstoy used to say in such cases, they are not equated by the author to any one measure, but differ by the contradiction inherent in life itself.
This trend was clearly manifested at the beginning of Ostrovsky's creative career, in the characters of the "Slavophile" which aroused the enthusiasm of AA Grigoriev and the circle "Moskvityanina". Such characters could be taken for resonators, if not for one important circumstance: it is in its own way mutilated people, a kind of the wrong side "self-righteous" ideas. In them, at every step, there is a most significant human flaw: they are completely deprived of their will, do not act when it is necessary to act, but only speak and cry. Remember, Dunya, as Vanya Borodkin loved you! - says such a positive hero ("Do not sit down in your sled") and burst into tears; Similarly, is working Mitya's steward in comedy "Poverty is no vice". True, he suggests running away Lyubov Gordeevna, but that's the end of it: she does not go against his father's blessing, and Mitya does not insist.
These characters are not a reflection of the author's idea, not conditional characters, but living persons. If they are happy, it is only by chance coincidence. The clerk Mitya, who was close to the eyes of Gordei Karpich, comes to the eye and instantly makes a decision: "That's Mitka and I'll give it up!" It's not for the sake of her daughter's happiness or for the reward for the virtues of her chosen one, but for her own vanity: in order to only annoy Korshunov, with whom Tortsov at this moment is quarreling.
H. G. Chernyshevsky reproached Ostrovsky for mitigating the conflict in the plays of the 1850s, but in this case it was not the playwright who argued, but the critic: he wanted to "expose" the thought of the writer under his ideas, and it developed according to artistic laws, not falling within the rigid framework of the revolutionary democratic concept of the writer-democrat.
It is no coincidence Ostrovsky already at the very beginning of his career, the playwright was not even between two, as the proverb demanded, but three fires. Utilitarians & quot ;, as Dostoevsky put it, i.e. revolutionary Democrats, demanded from him the same sharp criticism that was in "Bankruptcy". The Westerners saw in him the denial of their doctrine. Even the Slavophils felt that their masquerade Old United States costume was not up to the playwright, they reproached him for inconsistency and were right. Later, Ostrovsky wrote to Nekrasov that the Slavophiles had made wooden peasants, and even consoled them. "With dolls, you can do all sorts of experiments, they do not ask."As a great artist, Ostrovsky was already at that time outside of parties, narrow theoretical positions, outside literary groups: his measure was the truth of life and the truth of the characters.
The same happened with the "Profitable place": Greed, close to "good people" from the comedies of the Slavophile period, only transferred to a different environment of officialdom, only thanks to a coincidence of circumstances, refuses from a warm place and becomes a bribe-taker like Yusov, Belonogov or Vyshnevsky.
Another characteristic example is Vasilkov ("Mad Money") with his sounding name (poetic United States image) and with his desire for ideal love, in fact - a flint-entrepreneur who prays to one idol - money interest and even a beautiful wife is seen as a means to achieve commercial success.
With the clarity in character sketches, a remarkable feature of Ostrovsky's dramatic manner is that he always left the space of director and actor's improvisation to search for original solutions in the development of a character or plot. At one time in Thunder the scenic portraits of the heroes were highly sociological. For example, Kabanova ("Kabanikha") is not a woman, but a heavy, immobile, monumental block, one of its kind is the overwhelming will of man. However, in the productions Thunderstorms in the 1990s. in the interpretation of the image of Marfa Ignatievna Kabanova, completely new director's and actors' approaches appeared: instead of a heavy-handed, grossly fashioned, stern merchant, a relatively young, elegant, "home", "cozy", attractive woman appeared on a stage in a number of performances of the capital and provincial theaters , on the one hand, but a real hell for his daughter-in-law because of a reckless, blind love for his unrepentant son - on the other. The psychological paradox, embodied in the image, manifested itself in the fact that maternal attachment is capable of destroying more than one family and transforming the life of close people into an unceasing torture. The emphasis was thus shifted to what was contained in the characters: from external, straightforward interpretations to the power of human passions and the unexpectedness of scenic incarnations.
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